E-Mail us with Subject SUBSCRIBE"
Gujarati readers & Gujarati NRI's
Ayurveda book for
information on
diseases & remedies
Download Fonts if you are not able
to read gujarati fonts
Amlary Tablets
Ankush Tablets
Tikta Tablets
Sukesha Tablets
Nikhar Powder
Lavanya powder
Sukesha Herbal Shampoo
Charma Oil
Chyavanprashavleha

âp¡õV¡$V$ - lr_®ep-h^fphm

kp¡Å

 
 

âp¡õV¡$V$ - lr_®ep-h^fphm

 

                ApS>¡ Ap`Z¡ ÓZ fp¡Np¡_u A¡L$ kp\¡ ÅZL$pfu d¡mhhp_p R>uA¡. Ap fp¡N_u `ysõ[L$p dpV¡$ hpQL$p¡ [fa\u gp¬bp kde\u dpNZu l[u. Ap fp¡Np¡ A¡hp R>¡ L¡$ [¡_p\u fp¡NuAp¡ k[[ d|¬Tp[p lp¡e R>¡ A_¡ [¡_p¡ kQp¡V$ D`pe [¡_¡ S>X$[p¡ _\u lp¡[p¡. Ap ÓZ¡e ìepr^Ap¡ L$ô$kpÝe R>¡. A¡V$g¡ iê$Ap[ lp¡e [p¡ S> Ap¥j^\u kpfp \pe R>¡. [¡ S>¡d S>¡d h^[p Åe [¡d [¡d Ap¥j^_¡ [¡ NZL$pf[p¬ b¬^ \pe R>¡ A_¡ R>¡‰¡ [¡ Ap¥j^kpÝe fl¡[p¬ _\u, i÷kpÝe b_u Åe R>¡. A¡V$g¡ [¡_u i÷q¾$ep S> L$fphhu `X¡$ R>¡. Apd Ap ÓZ¡e fp¡N Ap¡`f¡i_\u S> dV$_pfp R>¡, `f¬[y OZp gp¡L$p¡_¡ Ap¡`f¡i__p¡ X$f lp¡e R>¡. fp¡N_y¬ õ\p_ A_¡ fp¡Nu_u Ahõ\p S> A¡hu lp¡e R>¡ L¡$ Ap¡`f¡i_ V$pmhp_u h©r[ klS> lp¡e R>¡. Aphp fp¡NuAp¡ Ap¡`f¡i_\u bQhp_p¡ D`pe ip¡^[p lp¡e R>¡. Aphp rdÓp¡_¡ S>Zphu ]$J L¡$ blz S|>_p \B Ne¡gp A_¡ R>¡‰u L$npA¡ `lp¢Q¡gp fp¡Np¡ r_d|®m \[p S> _\u. [¡dp¬ A¡hy¬ b_¡ L¡$ Äep¬ ky^u ]$hp gp¡ Ðep¬ ky^u [¡ fp¡Nu_¡ l¡fp_ L$f¡ _rl, dyíL¡$gudp¬ d|L¡$ _rl, h^[p AV$L$u Åe A_¡ gp¬b¡ Npm¡ kl¡S> Ap¡R>p `Z \pe. `f¬[y kph [p¡ dV¡$ S> _rl.

                hmu, A¡hy¬ `Z b_¡ L¡$ fp¡N A¡L$]$d h^u Åe L¡$ A¡hu L$p¡B `qfsõ\r[ Aph¡ [p¡ [pÐL$prgL$ Ap¡`f¡i_ `Z L$fphhy¬ `X¡$. A¡V$g¡ Ap¥j^_u fp¡Np¡ dpV¡$ Qp¡½$k dep®]$p R>¡. [¡\u Å¡ i¼e lp¡e [p¡ A_yL|m[p âdpZ¡ L¡$ W¬X$u_p q]$hkp¡ Å¡B_¡ i÷q¾$ep L$fphu g¡hu. Ap hp[ kp\¡ Apeyh£]$ `Z k¬d[ R>¡. Apeyh£]$ Ap¡`f¡i_\u rhfyÙ R>¡ [¡ dpÞe[p Mp¡V$u A_¡ c|g cf¡gu R>¡. Apeyh£]$dp¬ [¡ kde¡ `Z kS>®fu_¡ A¡V$gy¬ S> dlÐh l[y¬, S>¡V$gy¬ ApS>¡ R>¡.

                lh¡ A¡L$ buÆ hp[ `Z S>Zphu ]$J. S>¡ rdÓp¡ Ap¡`f¡i_\u buh¡ R>¡ A_¡ V$pmhp dpN¡ R>¡ [¡dZ¡ kS>®__p¡ Arcâpe d¡mhu g¡hp¡ L¡$ Ap fp¡N_y¬ Ap¡`f¡i_ L$fphhy¬ [pÐL$prgL$ S>ê$fu [p¡ _\u _¡ ? [¡_u k¬dr[ `R>u Apeyh£]$_p¬ Ap¥j^p¡_y¬ k¡h_ L$fhy¬ A_¡ kpfy¬ gpN¡ [p¡ [¡ D`Qpf Qpgy fpMhp. `f¬[y dp_p¡ L¡$ Ap¡`f¡i_ L$fphhy¬ S> `X¡$ [¡d lp¡e [p¡ Ap¡`f¡i_ L$fphu _pMhy¬. `R>u [¡ fp¡N afu\u ]¡$Mp _ ]¡$ [¡ dpV¡$ Apeyh£]$_p D`Qpfp¡ L$fhp, S>¡\u fp¡N afu \hp_y¬, Ecfhp_y¬ L$pfZ _ fl¡. Ap Örô$A¡ `Z Ap D`Qpfp¡, dprl[u A_¡ dpN®]$i®_ D`ep¡Nu \i¡.

                Ap ÓZ¡e fp¡N S>¡ AkpÝe, L$ô$kpÝe, epàe A_¡ i÷kpÝe R>¡, [¡d ÓZ¡e fp¡Np¡ dpV¡$ cpN¡ `yê$jp¡_¡ S> \pe R>¡. [¡dp¬ âp¡õV¡$V$ A_¡ lpBX²$p¡kug [p¡ dpÓ `yfyjp¡dp¬ S> Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Ap fu[¡ ÓZ¡e fp¡Np¡dp¬ Ap A¡L$ kpçe[p R>¡. ÓZ¡e fp¡N S>__ Ahehp¡ A_¡ d|ÓdpN® kp\¡ k¬b¬^ ^fph¡ R>¡ A_¡ X|¬$V$u_u _uQ¡_p cpNdp¬ S> Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

                D`f S>Zph¡g Qpf iå]$ âep¡N_p¡ kfm A\® kdÅhu ]$J. AkpÝe A¡V$g¡ Ap¥j^ âep¡N_¡ S>fp `Z dQL$ _ Ap`¡ A¡hp fp¡N L¡$ [¡\u sõ\r[. L$ô$kpÝe A¡V$k¡ M|b âeÐ_ `R>u fp¡Ndp¬ ape]$p¡ \pe `f¬[y [¡ kp¡ V$L$p [p¡ _rl S>. fp¡N h^[p¡ AV$L¡$ A_¡ `pR>p¡ `X¡$ [¡hu sõ\r[ kÅ®e. Aphp fp¡N L¡$ [¡hu sõ\r[. epàe A¡V$g¡ Äep¬ ky^u Ap¥j^ k¡h_ L$fhpdp¬ Aph¡ Ðep¬ ky^u kpfy¬ fl¡, fpl[ fl¡, fp¡N l¡fp_ _ L$f¡. `f¬[y S>¡hy¬ Ap¥j^ k¡h_ b¬^ \pe L¡$ [f[ fp¡N `pR>p¡ ]¡$Mp ]¡$ [¡hu sõ\r[. i÷kpÝe A¡V$g¡ Ap¡`f¡i_ S> A¡L$ dpÓ S>¡_p¡ D`Qpf lp¡e [¡_p fp¡N L¡$ fp¡N_u sõ\r[.

                lh¡ Ap fp¡N_p¬ _pd A_¡ [¡¡_p¡ Ap¡R>p¡ `qfQe d¡mhuA¡. `R>u [¡_y¬ rhN[hpf hZ®_ Å¡Biy¬.

                âp¡õV¡$V$_¡ Apeyh£]$dp¬ hp[pr›$gp L¡$ `p¥fyj N°¬r\ L$l¡ R>¡. [¡_y¬ õ\p_ d|Ópie A_¡ d|Ó_rgL$p_y¬ Äep¬ rdg_ lp¡e [¡_u `pk¡ `¡Yy$_p cpNdp¬ \pe R>¡. [¡dp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ [¡_¡ âp¡õV¡$V$pBqV$k fp¡N \ep¡ L$l¡hpe.

                buÅ¡ fp¡N [¡ lr_®ep. _pd M|b ârQg[ R>¡, S>¡_¡ kpfZNp¬W$ `Z L$l¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡. [¡ ifufdp¬ b¡ ÓZ S>ÁepA¡ [¡_p âL$pf âdpZ¡ \pe R>¡. `f¬[y dp¡V¡$ cpN¡ [¡ Ap¬[fX$p Üpfp h©jZ L$p¡\mudp¬ E[f¡ R>¡. Ap_¡ A¬ÓS> h©qÙ `Z L$l¡ R>¡.

                h^fphm A¡V$g¡ lpBX²$p¡kug. S>¡_¡ h©jZ h©qÙ, A¬X$h©qÙ, S>m h©qÙ `Z L$l¡ R>¡. hfd, `pZu cfphy¬, gp¡lu cfphy¬, Np¬W$ \hu, _k a}ghu hN¡f¡\u `Z Ap fp¡N Ap¡mMpe R>¡. Ap fp¡Ndp¬ h©jZ_u L$p¡\mudp¬ `pZu cfpe R>¡ A_¡ _pfue¡m S>¡hu a}gu Åe R>¡.

                lh¡ Ap`Z¡ ]f¡L$ fp¡N_¡ AgN `qfQe d¡mhuiy¬.                                                                                                                                                                 

D`f

âp¡õV¡$V$ : `p¥fyj N°¬r\ : hp[próW$gp

`yfyj ifuf_p `¡Yy$dp¬ Äep¬ d|Ópie (åg¡X$f) _y¬ dp¢ Aph¡gy¬ R>¡, S>ep¬\u d|ÓdpN® iê$ \pe R>¡. A¡V$g¡ d|Ópie_¡ d|Ó_rgL$p Å¡X$pep R>¡ [¡ õ\m¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ _pd_y¬ D`p¬N Aph¡gy¬ lp¡e R>¡. Ap_p¡ ApL$pf kp¡`pfu S>¡hX$p¡ lp¡e R>¡. V|¬$L$dp¬, Ap N°¬r\ d|mpie_u _ÆL$ `Z R>¡. dmpie A_¡ âp¡õV¡$V_u hÃQ¡ dpÓ ïg¡sódL$ ÐhQp_y¬ `p[my¬ `X$ lp¡e R>¡. Ap fu[¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ dmpie (f¡L$V$d) A_¡ d|Ópie_u hÃQ¡ Aph¡gu S>¡hX$u N°¡r\ (Np¬W$) R>¡.

                Ap Np¬W$ dpÓ `yfyjp¡dp¬ S> Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡, ÷uAp¡dp¬ _rl, A¡ [¡_u rhi¡j[p R>¡. `yfyjp¡dp¬ S> Å¡hp dm[u lp¡hp\u Ap Np¬W$_¡ `p¥fyj N°¬r\ `Z L$l¡ R>¡. Ap N°¬r\_u buÆ `Z A¡L$ Mpk _p¢^hp S>¡hu bpb[ R>¡ L¡$ [¡ dpÓ dp_hudp¬ S> Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡, AÞe L$p¡B `Z âpZudp¬ âp¡õV¡$V$_u Np¬W$ Asõ[Ðh ^fph[u _\u.

                Ap Np¬W$ `yfyjp¡dp¬ Äepf¡ [¡ bpëephõ\p R>p¡X$u eyhp_udp¬ âh¡i[p¡ lp¡e R>¡ Ðepf¡ rhL$khp_u iê$Ap[ L$f¡ R>¡, S>¡ 25 hj® ky^u A¡L$^pfu rhL$k¡ R>¡. A¡_y¬ kp¡`pfu S>¡hXy¬$ L$]$ 25 \u 45 hj® ky^u S>mhpB fl¡ R>¡. [¡ `R>u [¡_u h©qÙ \hp_u k¬cph_p fl¡ R>¡. A¡V$g¡ 40 \u 45 hj® ky^u [p¡ L$p¡B_¡ `Z âp¡õV¡$V$_u lepr[_p¡ L¡$ L$pdNufu_p¡ ¿epg Aph[p¡ _\u. Äepf¡ [¡ h^¡ R>¡ A_¡ ìes¼[_¡ l¡fp_ L$f¡ R>¡ Ðepf¡ S> [¡_p¡ ¿epg Aph¡ R>¡. lÆ ^Zp gp¡L$p¡_¡ Ap N°¬r\ rhj¡ `|fu ÅZL$pfu _\u.

                Alv A¡L$ hp[ kdS>hp S>¡hu R>¡ L¡$ b^p `yfyjp¡_¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ 40-45 hj® `R>u l¡fp_ L$f[u _\u. [¡_y¬ âdpZ [p¡ dpÓ 10 \u 15 V$L$p S> R>¡. bpL$u_p 80-85 V$L$p [p¡ âp¡õV¡$V$_u lpS>fu_u _p¢^ gu^p hNf `p¡[p_y¬ Æh_ `|fy¬ L$f¡ R>¡. dpV¡$ dp¡V¡$ cpN¡ [¡ 40 `R>u `p¡[p_p¡ âcph ]¡$MpX¡$ R>¡. `f¬[y L¡$V$gpL$ k¬Å¡Np¡dp¬ blz S> Ap¡R>p qL$õkpdp¬ [¡ 25 \u 45 hÃQ¡ `Z ìes¼[_¡ l¡fp_ L$f[u lp¡e R>¡.

                L$p¡B_¡ `Z õhpcprhL$ fu[¡ A¡L$ âñ \pe R>¡ L¡$ Aphu N°¬r\ Å¡ l¡fp_ S> L$f[u lp¡e [p¡ [¡_u ifufdp¬ S>ê$f iy¬ R>¡ ? `f¬[y Ly$]$f[¡  ]$f¡L$ hp[_p¡ rhQpf L$f¡g S> lp¡e R>¡. âp¡õV¡$V$ L¡$ S>¡_¡ `p¥fyj N°¬r\ L$l¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡ [¡ Mf¡Mf `p¥fyj N°¬r\ R>¡. Ap N°¬r\dp¬\u A¡L$ QuL$Zp¡ ÷ph Td¡ R>¡, S>¡ öph iy¾$pÏ_¡ `p¡jZ Ap`¡ R>¡. Ap N°¬r\ ep¥h_ âh¡i hM[¡ S> L$pe®iug b_¡ R>¡. hue®_u A¬]$f S>¡ Ak¬¿e iy¾$S>¬[y [f[p¬ lp¡e R>¡ [¡_¡ `p¡jZ Ap`hp_y¬, [¡_p lg_Qg_dp¬ d]$]$ L$fhp_y¬, hue®_p ÆhL$p¡jp¡_¡ _hÆh_ Ap`hp_y¬ A_¡ A¡ fu[¡ Nc®^pfZpdp¬ d]$]$ L$fhp_y¬ L$pd Ap N°¬r\_p¡ öph L$f¡ R>¡ hmu, Ap ÷ph d¬]$ `X¡$ A_¡ `p¥fyj N°¬r\ _bmu `X¡$ Ðepf¡ 40-45 hj® `R>u h©Ùphõ\p ]¡$Mp ]¡$hp_y¬ iê$ L$f¡ R>¡. Ap N°¬r\_¡ op_¢qÖe kp\¡ `Z k¬b¬^ R>¡. [¡\u [¡_p¡ ku^p¡ k¬b¬^ dNS> kp\¡ R>¡. Äepf¡ âp¡õV¡$V$dp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ R>¡ Ðepf¡ õhcph QuqX$ep¡ \B Åe R>¡. [¡ Ap_y¬ L$pfZ S> R>¡.

gnZp¡ :

                âp¡õV¡$V$_u h©rÙ \pe L¡$ [¡dp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ [p¡ dy¿e[¡h _uQ¡_p¬ gnZp¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Apdp¬ dy¿eÐh¡ `¡ipb A¬N¡_u aqfep]$p¡ Mpk Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

1.           fp¡Nu_¡ hpf¬hpf d|Óâh©r[ S>hp_u MZk \pe.

2.           d|Ópie âp¡õV¡$V$_p ]$bpZ\u _p_y¬ \B Ney¬ lp¡B kl¡S> `¡ipb_p¡ cfphp¡ \[p¬ `¡ipb L$fhp S>hy¬ `X$[y¬ lp¡e R>¡.

3.           `¡ipb L$f[u hM[¡ Å¡f L$fhy¬ `X¡$ R>¡. Å¡ fp¡N iê$Ap[_p¡ lp¡e [p¡ Ap¡Ry>¬ Å¡f L$fhy¬ `X¡$ R>¡. Å¡ fp¡N h^y lp¡e [p¡ h^pf¡ Å¡f L$fhy¬ `X¡$ R>¡.

4.           ^Zu hM[ fp¡N A¡V$gp¡ b^p¡ h^u Nep¡ lp¡e R>¡ L¡$ `¡ipb L$f[u hM[¡ Ap¬Mdp¬ Ap¬ky Aphu Åe R>¡.

5.           fp¡NuA¡ fpÓ¡ `Z `¡ipb L$fhp DW$hy¬ `X$[y¬ lp¡e R>¡. fpÓ¡ `¡ipb EW$hp_y¬ fp¡Nu_¡ `l¡gp blz kpdpÞe gpN¡ R>¡, `f¬[y `R>u A¡ fp¡N h^[p¡ Åe R>¡. [¡\u Jdf_¡ L$pfZ¡ h^pf¡ hM[ `¡ipb L$fhp S>hy¬ `X¡$ R>¡ [¡d dp_hp_¡ b]$g¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ R>¡ L¡$ _rl [¡ [`pk L$fphu g¡hu Å¡BA¡.

6.           fprÓ_p kde¡ gp¡lu_y¬ `qfc°dZ ^V$u S>[p¬ `¡ipb S>hp_u h©rÑ h^[u Åe R>¡.

7.           `¡ipb L$f[u hM[¡ ^Zu hpf ]y$:Mphp¡ \pe R>¡ [p¡ ^Zu hpf [ZMp Tf[p¬ lp¡e [¡hu bm[fp \pe R>¡.

8.           d|Ópiedp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aphu Åe [p¡ `¡ipbdp¬ `pL$, `ê$, `k k¡ëk `Z Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

9.           `¡ipb L$ep® `R>u `Z d|Ópie Mpgu \[y¬ _\u. [¡dp¬ \p¡X$p¡ `¡ipb [p¡ bpL$u flu S> Äe R>¡, S>¡_¡ L$pfZ¡ Q¡` gpNhp_u k¬cph_p h^¡ R>¡.

10.        ^Zu hpf  `¡ipb kp\¡ TpX$p_u [fgua `Z \[u lp¡e R>¡. âp¡õV¡$V$ dmpie ApNm h^y lp¡e [p¡ hpR|>V$ L$f[p¬ TpX$p¡ \B Åe R>¡.

11.        fp¡Nu dp_rkL$ np¡c A_ych¡ R>¡. hpf¬hpf `¡ipb L$fhp S>hp_y¬ [¡_¡ Ópk]$peL$ gpN¡ R>¡.

12.        âp¡õV¡$V$h©qÙ dNS> D`f `Z Akf L$f[u lp¡B õhpcph QuqX$ep¡ \B Åe R>¡.

13.        fp¡Nu_¡ fpÓ¡ hpf¬hpf EW$hy¬ `X$[y¬ lp¡B [¡_u K^ ^V$u Åe R>¡.

14.        fp¡Nu_¡ dp\p_p¡ ]y$:Mphp¡ iê$ \pe R>¡.

15.        L¡$V$gpL$ fp¡Nudp¬ L$df_p¡ ]y$:Mphp¡ `Z Å¡hp dm[p¡ lp¡e R>¡.

16.        `¡ipb S>hp_u h©rÑ h^¡ R>¡. dm âh©rÑ Ap¡R>u \B Åe R>¡ A_¡ L$brS>ep[ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

17.        fp¡Nu_¡ Mphp_u fyrQ fl¡[u _\u. Mp¡fpL$ cph[p¡ _\u.

18.        ifuf Y$ugy¬ `X$u Åe R>¡.

19.        fp¡N gp¬bp¡ Qpg¡ [p¡ L$uX$_u_u L$pe®nd[p ^V$u Åe R>¡.

20.        fp¡Nu_¡ Æh_dp¬ l[pip S>Zpe R>¡.

`funZ :

                fp¡Nu_¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ h©qÙ \B R>¡ L¡$ _rl A_¡ \B R>¡ [p¡ L$B q]$ipd¬ \B R>¡ [¡ S>Zphp dpV¡$ dmdpN®dp¬ b¡ Ap¬Nmu _pMu rQqL$ÐkL$ [`pk L$f¡ R>¡. [¡_y¬ L$]$ kp¡`pfu\u h^u_¡ L¡$V$gy¬ \[y¬ lp¡e R>¡, [¡ ÅZu iL$pe R>¡. ^Zu hpf Ap L$]$ gvby S>¡hXy¬$ \ey¬ lep¡ R>¡. lh¡ [p¡ V¡$rgõL$p¡` (Telescope) \u eyf¡\°p¡õL$p¡`u (Urethroscopy) Üpfp `Z fp¡N_y¬ `funZ blz õ`ô$ fu[¡ \pe R>¡.

L$pfZp¡ :

1.           âp¡õV¡$V$ h©qÙ_y¬ dy¿e L$pfZ b¡W$pXy$ Æh_ dp_hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡. ifuf îd_p¡ Acph, ìepepd L$fhp¡ _rl A_¡ cpf¡ Mp¡fpL$_y¬ k¡h_ L$pgpÞ[f¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ h©qÙ L$f¡ R>¡.

2.           kp¥\u ANÐe_y¬ L$pfZ Å[ue Æh__u rhjd[p R>¡. rbgLy$g b°ûQe® `pmhpdp¬ Aph[y¬ lp¡e A\hp Å[ue Æh__p¡ Ar[f¡L$ \[p¡ lp¡e [p¡ Ap fp¡N \pe R>¡. rh^yf, b°ûQpfu, S>¡_u `Ð_u kp\¡ fl¡hp_y¬ Ap¡Ry>¬ b_¡ R>¡ [¡hp L$pdu `yfyjp¡_¡ Ap fp¡N rhi¡j \pe R>¡.

 D`f

âp¡õV¡$V$p¡V$pBV$uk

                `p¥fyj N°¬r\dp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ [¡_¡ âp¡õV¡$V$p¡V$pBV$uk L$l¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡. Ap eyhp_ he¡ A_¡ dp¡V$u Jdf¡ `Z Å¡hp dm[p¡ fp¡N R>¡. Ap kp¡Å¡ \hp_y¬ dy¿e L$pfZ Qp¡½$k âL$pf_p b¡L$V¡$qfep\u Q¡f / BÞa¡L$i_ gpN¡ A_¡ [¡dp¬ dp¡V$p âdpZdp¬ `k k¡ëk Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Ap kp¡Å¡dp¬\u N|dXy¬ (Abscess)\hp_u i¼e[p `Z fl¡ R>¡.

                Ap kp¡Å¡ Å¡ S>ë]$u \e¡gp¡ lp¡e (Acute)[p¡ fp¡Nu_¡ A¡L$]$d _bmpB S>Zpe, W¬$X$u hpe, [ph Aph¡, `¡ipbdp¬ bm[fp A_¡ ]y$:Mphp¡ \pe, `|¬W$_p cpNdp¬ `Z ]y$:Mphp¡ \pe A_¡ gpe bm¡, `¡ipb AV$L$u AV$L$u_¡ Aph¡ R>¡. kpÅ¡ S|>_p¡ lp¡e [p¡ L$df, õ_pey, kp¬^p, h©jZdp¬ ]y$Mphp¡ \pe R>¡ A_¡ fp¡Nu b¡Q¡_u A_ych¡ \¡.

D`Qpf :

                fp¡Nu_p D`Qpfdp¬ A¡L$ Ap¥j^p¡`Qpf ]$frdep_ fpMhp_u L$pmÆ R>¡. A_¡ Ap b¬_¡\u ape]$p¡ _ \pe [p¡ R>¡‰¡ Ap¡`f¡i_ R>¡.

                âp¡õV¡$V$ h©qÙ kpdpÞe lp¡e, iê$Ap[_u lp¡e, fp¡Nu_u BÃR>p i÷L$d®_u _ lp¡e L¡$ Ais¼[ / Jdf_¡ L$pfZ¡ iL$e _ lp¡e [¡hp fp¡Nu dpV¡$ _uQ¡ âdpZ¡_p Ap¥j^p¡`Qpf fpl[ê$` b_¡ R>¡ A_¡ fp¡Nu_¡ [fguadp¬\u bQph[p¬ lp¡e R>¡.

1.           fkpe_ Q|Z®_y¬  khpf-kp¬S> 2 hpf 5-5 N°pd_u dpÓpdp¬ `pZu kp\¡ k¡h_.

2.           Ærh[â]$phV$u_u 2-2 Np¡mu, rigpÆ[ A_¡ N|Nm kfMp cpN¡ `X¡$ R>¡.

3.           kpV$p¡X$u, d¡\u, Np¡Mfy, Æh_ue h_õ`r[, Apdmp¬, Nmp¡ hN¡f¡_p¡ DL$pmp¡ L$fu khpf-kp¬S> 20-20 N°pd `php¡.

4.           `y__®hp N|Nm, rÓamp N|Nm L¡$ L$p¬Q_pf N|Nm_y¬ k¡h_ gpcL$f R>¡.

5.           cp¢eApdgu_y¬ Q|Z® 5-5 N°pd g¡hp\u M|b kpfp¡ gpc \pe R>¡.

6.           fp¡Nu_¡ r_erd[ Nfd `pZu_y¬ V$bbp\ g¡hy¬.

`f¡Æ L¡$ kphQ¡[u :

1.           fp¡Nu_¡ k¬ed`|h®L$ h[®hy¬. Å[ue Æh_ D`f r_e¬ÓZ fpMhy¬.

2.           b¡W$pXy$ Æh_ R>p¡X$u `qfîd L$fhp¡, lmhp¡ ìepepd L$fhp¡.

3.           L$bÆep[ \hp ]¡$hp _rl.

4.           N¡k \pe, A`Qp¡ \pe [¡hp¡ Mp¡fpL$ g¡hp¡ _rl.

5.           `¡ipb fp¡L$hp¡ _rl.

6.           ]$pê$, rkNpf¡V$ h¡N¡f¡ ìek_ R>p¡X$hy¬.

                S>¡_¡ Ais¼[ lp¡e, gp¡lu Ap¡Ry>¬ lp¡e, ù]$e fp¡N lp¡e, ðpkfp¡N lp¡e [¡_¡ i÷L$d® L$fpe _rl. bpL$u_p kp¥_¡ i÷L$d® L$fphhpdp¬ hp¬^p¡ _\u. lh¡_p kdedp¬ i÷L$d®_u buL$ fpMhu Mp¡V$u R>¡. `l¡gp¬_p hM[dp¬ `¡Yy$ D`f L$p`p¡ d|L$u_¡ âp¡õV¡$V$_y¬ Ap¡`f¡i_ L$fp[y¬. lh¡ [p¡ d|ÓdpN£ _mu QX$phu ^uf¡ ^uf¡ Mp¡[fu_¡, âp¡õV¡$V$_p Vy$L$X$p L$fu_¡ i÷L$d® Üpfp âp¡õV¡$V$_¡ ]|$f L$fpe R>¡, S>¡dp¬ gp¡lu_y¬ hl¡[y¬ A_¡ h¡]$_p b¬_¡ Ap¡R>p lp¡e R>¡. [¡\u kl¡gpB\u i¼e b_¡ R>¡. 

 D`f

kpfZNp¬W$ (Hernia)

                kpfZNp¬W$ âQrg[ fp¡N R>¡. A¬N°¡Ædp¬ [¡_¡ lr_®ep (Hernia) L$l¡ R>¡. Ap fp¡N Np¬W$_p õhê$`¡ ifuf D`f ìes¼[ \pe R>¡. `f¬[y  Mf¡Mf A¡ Np¬W$ _\u. ifuf_p¡ L$p¡B Aheh Y$ugp¡ `X$u S>[p¬ [¡ `p¡[p_¡ õ\p_¡\u kfL$u_¡ ifuf_p blpf Aphhp âeÐ_ L$f¡ R>¡. Ðepf¡ ifuf D`f [¡ Np¬W$ S>¡hp¡ ApL$pf L$f¡ R>¡. Ap_¡ kpfZNp¬W$ L$l¡ R>¡. kpfZNp¬W$_¡ A¬ÓS> h©qÙ `Z L$l¡ R>¡.

                kpfZNp¬W$_u A¡L$ rhi¡j[p lp¡e R>¡ L¡$ L$ped A¡L$ S> `qfsõ\r[dp¬ _\u fl¡[u. Å¡ [¡_y¬ h^pf¡ ]$bpZ lp¡e [p¡ [¡ dp¡V$u gpN¡, ]$bpZ ^V$u S>[p¬ _p_u gpN¡. fp¡Nu k|B fl¡ [p¡ `pR>u A¬]$f S>[u fl¡. lp\¡\u ]$bphu A¬]$f ^L¡$gu ]¡$hpdp¬ Aph¡ [p¡ `Z b¡ku Åe, Ðepf¡ blpf\u Å¡_pf_¡ gpN¡ AÐepf¡ [p¡ fp¡N_y¬ _pd r_ip_ _\u, b^y¬ bfpbf R>¡. `pRy>¬ lfhp-afhp_y¬ b_¡ L¡$ A¬]$f_p Aheh_y¬  Å¡f h^¡ [p¡ ]¡$Mp ]¡$ - A¡hy¬ bÞep L$f¡ A_¡ Qpëep L$f¡.

                Ap [p¡ \B S>¡ blpf ]¡$Mp[u lp¡e [¡hu kpfZNp¬W$_u hp[. ifuf_u A¬]$f `Z Aphu kpfZNp¬W$ \[u lp¡e R>¡, S>¡ blpf ]¡$Mp[u _\u. dp¡V¡$ cpN¡ Ap`Z¡ `¡Yy$dp¬ S>¡ cpN D`k¡gp¡ lp¡e R>¡ [¡_¡ S> kpfZNp¬W$ L$luA¡ R>uA¡. `f¬[y kpfZNp¬W$_p _uQ¡ âdpZ¡ L¡$V$gpL$ A\® \pe R>¡. [¡hu `qfsõ\r[ r_dp®Z \pe Ðepf¡ kpfZNp¬W$ \B L$l¡hpe.

1.           R>p[u, `¡V$, h©jZ_u L$p¡\mu, QpdX$u_p¡ ^¡fphp¡ Ap b^p AgN AgN ifuf_p `p¡gpZhpmp â]¡$ip¡ R>¡. A¡L$ â]¡$i_p Ahehp¡_p õ_peyAp¡ L¡$ Ap¬[fÐhQp buÅ â]¡$idp¬ ^|ku Åe [¡_¡ kpfZNp¬W$ L$l¡ R>¡. Apd \[p¬ Å¡ S>Áep Ap¡R>u `X¡$ [p¡ blpf_u QpdX$u D`f ]$bpZ L$fu_¡ Np¬W$ S>¡hy¬ b_ph¡ R>¡.

2.           Ap¬[fX$p¬ A_¡ [¡dp¬ Mpk L$fu_¡ _p_y¬ Ap¬[fXy¬$ Äepf¡ `p¡[p_u `L$X$ Nydphu ]¡$ A_¡ Y$ugy¬ `X$u Åe Ðepf¡ [¡ `p¡[p_p õ\p_¡\u kfL$u_¡ buÅ õ\p_dp¬ Åe R>¡. Aphy¬ Ap¬[fX$p_p D`f_u QpdX$u dpV¡$ `Z b_¡ R>¡. Aphp kde¡ Ap Y$ugp¡ Aheh buÅ õ\p_dp¬ \B_¡ S>¡ Dcpf `¡]$p L$f¡ [¡ kpfZNp¬W$ \B L$l¡hpe.

 

kpfZNp¬W$_p âL$pfp¡

kp¬â[ rhop__u Örô$_u kpfZNp¬W$_p _uQ¡ âdpZ¡ âL$pfp¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

(1)        h¡ÞV²$g lr_®ep (Ventral Hernia)

Ap âL$pf_u kpfZNp¬W$ `¡V$ D`f Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. [¡ dy¿eÐh¡ _p_p¬ bpmL$p¡ A_¡ S>¡_¡ h^pf¡ `X$[u âkyr[ \e¡gu lp¡e [¡hu ÷uAp¡dp¬ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. `¡V$_u ]$uhpg_u N|¬\Zu dS>b|[ dp¬k`¡iuAp¡ Üpfp \e¡gu lp¡e R>¡. Ap N|¬\Zu ApX$u Dcu lp¡e R>¡. [¡ L$pfZhip[ rir\g \B S>[p¬ ]$uhpg _bmu `X$u Åe R>¡ A_¡ _p_y¬ Ap¬[fXy¬$ `¡V$_u blpf ^ku Åe Aph¡ R>¡. Ap _p_y¬ Ap[fXy¬$ `¡V$_u blpf_u k`pV$u D`f AS>d¡fu bp¡f L¡$ guby¬ S>¡hXy¬$ ]¡$Mpe R>¡. bpmL$ M|b fX¡$, Mb| lk¡. h^pf¡ `X$[u D^fk Mpe, bpmL$_¡ h^pf¡ `X[p TpX$p \pe L¡$ S|>_u L$bÆep[ lp¡e Ðepf¡ Aphy¬ b_¡ R>¡.lp\ hX¡$ ]$bphhp\u kpfZNp¬W$ b¡ku Åe R>¡. gp¡L$cpjpdp¬ Ap_¡ X|$V$p¡ a}ghp¡ L$l¡ R>¡. Ap X|¬$V$p D`f `|¬W$p S>¡hp¡ L$X$L$ `]$p\® d|L$u ]$bphu_p¡ `pV$p¡ bp¬^u fpMhp\u blpf ^ku Aph[y¬ _\u. ]$frdep_ `¡V$_u ]$uhpg dS>b|[ b_u Åe [p¡ bpmL$_¡ Aphu kpfZNp¬W$ afu\u \hp_u iL$e[p fl¡[u _\u.

S>¡ ÷uAp¡_¡ hpf¬hpf L¡$ D`fpD`fu âkyr[ \[u lp¡e L¡$ kuT¡qfe_\u âkyr[ L$fphu lp¡e [¡d_u `¡V$_u q]$hpg _bmu `X$u Åe R>¡. Aphu ÷uAp¡_¡ L$bÆep[ fl¡[u lp¡e, Å¡f\u D^fk Mphu `X$[u lp¡e L¡$ dmâh©rÑ hM[¡ Å¡f L$fhy¬ `X$[y¬ lp¡e Ðepf¡ _p_y¬ Ap¬[fXy¬$ `¡V$_u blpf ^ku Aphu AS>d¡fu bp¡f L¡$ gvby S>¡hX$p¡, blpf\u Å¡B iL$pe [¡hp¡ azgphp¡ L$f¡ R>¡. Ap kpfZNp¬W$ D`f `|¬W$p S>¡hp¡ L$X$L$ `]$p\® d|L$u gp¬bp¡ kde `pV$p¡ bp¬^u fpMhpdp¬ Aph¡ [p¡ Ap fp¡N dV$u Åe R>¡.

(2)        HÁhpB_g lr_®ep (Inguinal Hernia)

40-50 hj®\u dp¡V$u Jdf_p `yfyjp¡_¡ kp\m_p d|mdp¬ _p_y¬ Ap¬[fXy¬$ blpf ^ku Aphu kpfZNp¬W$ L$f¡ R>¡. iê$Ap[dp¬ kpfZNp¬W$ _p_u lp¡e R>¡, `Z hM[ S>[p¬ [¡ dp¢kbu S>¡hu dp¡V$u \B Åe R>¡. fp¡Nu k|B S>B, lp\\u ]$bphu [¡_¡ `pR>u A¬]$f ^L¡$gu iL¡$ R>¡. fp¡N_¡ h^[p¡ AV$L$phhp dpV¡$ Qpg[u hM[¡ Mpk âL$pf_p¡ `Ë$p¡ `l¡fu fpMhp¡ S>ê$fu R>¡.

(3)        õ¾$p¡V$g lr_®ep (Scrotai Hernia)

                R>p¡L$fp¡ (Male Child) S>Þd¡ Ðepf\u A¡L$ hj® ky^u_u Jdfdp¬ [¡_p b¬_¡ A¬X$L$p¡jp¡ (Testies)A¡_u S>ÁepA¡- L$p¡\mu (Scrotum) dp¬ Aphu Åe R>¡. A¬X$L$p¡jp¡_p¡ `¡V$dp¬\u L$p¡\mudp¬ Aphhp_p¡ dpN® Ap`p¡Ap` Ly$]$f[u fu[¡ b¬^ \B Åe R>¡. L$p¡B `Z L$pfZkf Ap dpN® Myp¡ fl¡ [p¡ Ap dpN® _p_p¬ Ap¬[fX$p¬ L$p¡\mudp¬ S>B iL¡$ Ðepf¡ L$p¡\mu_p cpNdp¬ kp¡Å¡ Apìep¡ lp¡e [¡hp cpk L$f¡ R>¡. ^Zu hpf L$p¡\mu _pqfe¡m S>¡hX$u dp¡V$u `Z \B Åe. fp¡Nu k|B_¡ lp\\u ]$bph¡ [p¡ Ap âL$pf_u kpfZNp¬W$ `pR>u A¬]$f S>[u fl¡ R>¡.

                Ap b^p S> âL$pf_u kpfZNp¬W$_p¡ _p_p¡ azgphp¡ lpr_L$[p® _\u. `f¬[y ¾$di: [¡ h^[p¡ Åe R>¡ A_¡ Äepf¡ [¡_y¬ L$]$ dp¡Vy¬$ b_¡ R>¡. Ðepf¡ [¡ lg_Qg_ A_¡ fp¡tS>]$p ìehlpf ANhX$ Ecu L$f¡ R>¡. dpV¡$ A¡L$hpf kpfZNp¬W$ Å¡hp dm¡ `R>u [¡ h^¡ _rl [¡_u Mpk L$pmÆ fpMhu S>ê$fu R>¡.

                Ap fp¡Ndp¬ A¡L$ sõ\r[ N¬cuf `Z Aph¡ R>¡, S>¡_¡ L$l¡ R>¡. S>¡_¡ Strangulation of Hernia L$l¡ R>¡. AQp_L$ _p_p Ap¬[fX$p_p¡ dp¡V$p¡ cpN kpfZNp¬W$_p R>¡]$dp¬\u blpf ^ku Aph¡ R>¡ Ðepf¡ R>¡L$ Ap¡tQ[p¡ k¬L$p¡QpB_¡ Ap¬[fX$p_¡ Nm¡ V|¬$`p¡ Ap`¡ R>¡. `qfZpd¡ Ap¬[fX$p_y¬ N¢N°u_ (Gangrene) \u Åe R>¡ L¡$ Ap¬[fXy¬$ b¬^ \B Åe R>¡. fp¡Nu_¡ bQphu g¡hp Aphp sõ\r[dp¬ [pÐL$prgL$ S>ê$f `X¡$ R>¡.

L$pfZp¡ :

kpfZNp¬W$ hpey_¡ L$pfZ¡ S> \[p¡ fp¡N R>¡. Å¡ ìes¼[ hp[âL$p¡`L$, hp[h^®L$ A_¡ Aplpfrhlpf L$f¡ [p¡ [¡_¡ lr_®ep \hp_u h^y iL$e[p fl¡ R>¡. Aphp L$pfZp¡ _uQ¡ dyS>b R>¡.

                1.           S>du_ D`f\u cpf¡ hS>_ bm`|h®L$ KQL$hy¬.

                2.           cpf¡ hS>_ dp\¡ d|L$u gp¬by Qpghy¬.

                3.           Ly$õ[u, bp¡s¼k­N S>¡hu bmhpmu L$kf[p¡ L$fhu.

                4.           dL$p__u R>[, N¡g¡fu, TpX$ D`f\u `X$u S>hy¬.

                5.           M|b W¬$X$p `pZuA¡ _lphp_u V¡$h\u.

                6.           gp¬bp kde\u fl¡[u [uh° L$bÆep[_¡ L$pfZ¡ L$ped L$fp¬Æ_¡ dmâh©rÑ L$fhp_¡ gB_¡.

                7.           dmd|Ó, hpR|>V$ S>¡hp h¡Np¡_¡ `fpZ¡ fp¡L$hp\u.

                8.           A¡ S> fu[¡ Ap h¡Np¡_¡ `fpZ¡ fp¡L$php\u.

                9.           õL|$V$f_¡ L$uL$ dpfhp S>¡hu âhq©Ñ\u.

                10.        hpg-hV$pZp-Qp¡mp S>¡hp hp[g `]$p\p£_y¬ Ar^L$ k¡h_ L$fhp\u.

                11.        hpku, hpeXy¬$, [m¡gy¬ Mphp\u.

                12.        AÆZ®dp¬ `Z Mhp\u.

                13.        N¡k L$f¡ [¡hy¬ Mphp\u.

kpfhpf :

                ApNm S>Zphu Nep [¡ âdpZ¡ lr_®ep A¡ iõÓkpÝe ìepr^ R>¡. `f¬[y Å¡ iê$Ap[_y¬ lp¡e, Å¡f Ap¡Ry>¬ lp¡e [p¡ Ap¥j^ k¡h_\u [¡ ApNm h^[y¬ AV$L¡$ R>¡, _yL$ip_ L$f[y¬ _\u A_¡ L¡$V$gpL$ k¬Å¡Np¡dp¬ ^V¡$ `Z R>¡. `l¡gp¬_p kdedp¬ Ar”L$d® `Z L$fhpdp¬ Aph[y¬ l[y¬. lr_®ep _uQ¡ _ E[f¡ A_¡ h^y _ a¡gpe [¡ dpV¡$ `V$p¡ bp¬^hpdp¬ `Z lp¡e R>¡. lr_®ep_p fp¡NuA¡ L$pmÆ A_¡ kpfhpf g¡hu. :

1.           fp¡S> S>çep `R>u rihpnpf `pQ__u 1-1 _p_u QdQu `pZu kp\¡ g¡hu, S>¡\u Mp¡fpL$_y¬ `pQ_ \B N¡k \[p¡ _\u.

2.           rQÓL$pq]$hV$u 2-2 Np¡mu q]$hkdp¬ ÓZ hpf khpf-b`p¡f-kp¬S> g¡hu.

3.           fpÓ¡ k|[u hM[¡ 20 \u 30 N°pd Acepqfô$ g¡hy¬.

4.           h©qÙbpr^[phqV$L$p_u Np¡mu_y¬ k¡h_ L$fhy¬.

5.           ApNm b[ph¡gp L$pfZp¡ _ \hp ]¡$hp¬. ApV$gy¬ L$fhp\u kpfZNp¬W$dp¬ Mf¡Mf fpl[ fl¡ R>¡.

D`f

h^fphm (Hydrocele)

h^fphm iå]$ NyS>fp[u cpjpdp¬ âQrg[ R>¡. Ap fp¡N dpÓ `yfyj År[ `yf[p¡ S> dep®q]$[ R>¡, L$pfZ L¡$ `yfyj_p Nyáp¬N_p¡ fp¡N R>¡. `yfyj_u d|ÓrÞÖe_u kp\¡ A¡L$ L$p¡\mu Å¡X$pe¡gu R>¡. [¡dp¬ b¡ A¬X$ L$pQ_u bMp¡V$u S>¡hp ApL$pf_p fl¡gp lp¡e R>¡ L$p¡\gu kpdpÞe fu[¡ Y$ugu S> fl¡ R>¡, S>¡\u [¡dp¬ fl¡gp A¬X$p¡ ifuf\u ]|$f fl¡. `f¬[y Äepf¡ [¡ k¬h¡]$_iug b_¡ R>¡ Ðepf¡ k¬L$p¡QpB_¡ ifuf_u _ÆL$ Aphu Åe R>¡. h^fphm Ap L$p¡\mu A_¡ A¬X$_p¡ fp¡N R>¡. k¬õL©$[dp¬ [¡_¡ h©qÙ L$l¡ R>¡. Apdp¬ A¬X$ iå]$ AÝepf fl¡ R>¡. bpL$u [¡_y¬ _pd A¬X$h©qÙ S> lp¡e R>¡. A¬N°¡Ædp¬ [¡_¡ lpBX²$p¡kug L$l¡ R>¡.

                Ap A¬X$ A_¡ L$p¡\mu `p¡[p_p dp`dp¬ A¡V$g¡ âdpZdp¬ lp¡e Ðep¬ ky^u hp¬^p¡ _rl, `f¬[y [¡dp¬ `pZu cfpe L¡$ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ A¡V$g¡ [¡ dp¡V$u \pe, [¡ a}g¡ A_¡ rhL©$r[_u iê$Ap[ \pe. Ap fp¡Ndp¬ A¬X$ S>¡_¡ Np¡mu L¡$ h©jZ L$l¡ R>¡ [¡_u af[¡ A¡V$g¡ ApSy>bpSy> `pZu cfpe¡gy¬ lp¡e R>¡ A_¡ L$p¡\mu [¬N \[p a}g¡gu gpN¡ R>¡. L$p¡\mudp¬ S>¡d S>¡d `pZu h^y cfpe [¡d [¡d L$p¡\mu_p¡ ìep` h^[p¡ Åe. OZp gp¡L$p¡_¡ Ap L$p¡\mu h^[u h^[u _prfe¡m S>¡hX$u `Z \B Ne¡gu lp¡e R>¡.

                Mf¡Mf Ap A¬X$h©qÙ _\u, L$p¡\mu_u h©qÙ R>¡. `f¬[y L¡$V$guL$ hpf buŬ L$pfZp¡_¡ gB_¡ `Z A¬X$h©qÙ \[u lp¡e R>¡. S>¡d L¡$ L$p¬BL$ hpN¡, A¬X$ D`f Ap^p[ \pe A_ A¬X$_¡ kp¡Å¡ Aphu Åe, A¬X$ a}gu Åe. [d_¡ gpN¡ L¡$ h^fphm \B `Z [¡ dpÓ A¬X$ip¡\ S> lp¡e R>¡. kpdpÞe D`pep¡\u [¡ kp¡Å¡ b¡ku Åe R>¡. hmu Ap kp¡Ådp¬ ]y$:Mphp¡ h^y lp¡e R>¡. hOfphmdp¬ cpÁe¡ S> kp¡Å¡ \pe R>¡. buÅ¡ A¡L$ fp¡N R>¡, Npg`Qp¡rmep Ap fp¡Ndp¬ L$p__u _uQ¡_u `pR>m_p cpNdp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ R>¡. fp¡Nu_¡ dp¢ Mp¡g[p¬, b¬^ L$f[p¬ [L$gua `X¡$ R>¡. Ap fp¡Ndp¬ `Z h©jZdp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aphu Åe R>¡. kpdpÞe fu[¡ S> Npg¡ `Qp¡rZey¬ \ey¬ lp¡e [¡_p\u rhfyÙ bpSy>_p A¬X$dp¬ Aphp¡ kp¡Å¡ Aph[p¡ lp¡e R>¡. A¬X$dp¬ Ap kp¡Å L¡$ h©qÙ _uQ¡_u ep]$u kpfhpf\u dV$u Åe R>¡.

(1)        rÓamp N|Nm A_¡ L$p¬Q_pf N|Nm_u 3+3=6 Np¡mu khpf-b`p¡f¡-kp¬S> 3 hpf Vy$L$X$p L$fu_¡ Nfd `pZp kp\¡ g¡hu.

(2)        kp¡Å dpV¡$ ^[|fp_p¬ `p__¡ a|V$u [¡_u QV$Zu S>¡hy¬ dygped b_phu A¬X$ D`f g¡` L$fhp¡ A\hp ]$ip¬N g¡`_p¡
D`ep¡N L$fhp¡.

h^fphm_¡ dm[p¡ S> fp¡N kpfZNp¬W$ R>¡. S>epf¡ kpfZNp¬W$ L$p¡\mudp¬ D[f¡ R>¡ Ðepf¡ hOfphm \hp S>¡hp¬ S> gnZp¡ gpN¡ R>¡. Ap kpfZNp¬W$ `¡Yy$dp¬ Óp¬ku E[f¡ R>¡. Aph¡ kde¡ kpfZNp¬W$ R>¡ L¡$ hOfphm [¡ _½$u L$fhy¬ Å¡BA¡. fp¡Nu k|B Åe, Apfpd L$f¡ A_¡ `¡Yy$_¡ ]$bph¡ [p¡ kpfZNp¬W$ b¡ku S>[u lp¡e R>¡, [¡\u A¬X$h©qÙ S>[u fl¡ R>¡. fp¡Nu_u L$p¡\mu `l¡gp¬_p S>¡hu S> \B Åe R>¡. Ap kpfZNp¬W$ R>¡. kpfZNp¬W$_u Np¬W$ _p_u dp¡V$u L¡$ hO[u Ap¡R>u \ep L$f¡ R>¡. h^fphm_u h©qÙ S>¡d_u[¡d fl¡ R>¡. ifuf_u L$p¡B`Z `qfsõ\r[dp¬ S>¡ b]$gp[u _\u. lL$uL$[dp¬ kpfZNp¬W$ hOfphm L$f[p¬ h^y D`Öhu R>¡.

                `f¬[y ^Zu ìes¼[dp¬ kpfZNp¬W$ A_¡ hOfphm c¡Nu \pe R>¡. Ap Mfpb `qfsõ\r[ A_¡ [dp¬ i÷q¾$epAp¡ Apifp¡ g¡hp¡ S> Å¡BA¡. Ap fp¡Np¡dp¬ L$p¡\mudp¬ `pZu cfpe¡gy¬ lp¡e S> R>¡. [¡dp¬ Ap[fX$p¬_p¡ cpN kfL$u_¡ Aph¡ [p¡ fp¡Nu_u sõ\r[ N¬cuf `Z k¬cph_p fl¡ R>¡. Å¡ Ap `qfsõ\r[_¡ kdekf V$pmhpdp¬ _ Aph¡ [p¡ fp¡Nu_u sõ\r[ N¬cuf \hp_u k¬cph_p fl¡ R>¡.

                hOfphm A¡ A¡L$ A¡hp¡ fp¡N R>¡ L¡$ [¡ Nd¡ [¡ Jdf¡ \pe R>¡. bpmL$p¡\u dp¬X$u h©Ùp¡ Aphu T`V$dp¬ Aphu Åe R>¡. `f¬[y bpmL$p¡_¡ \[p¡ fp¡N Ap¡R>p¡ `uX$pL$pfu A_¡ _yL$ip_L$[p® R>¡. [¡_p¡ fp¡N b¡ku A_¡ dV$u `Z Åe R>¡. `f¬[y dp¡V$u Jdf¡ \[p¡ fp¡N ^uf¡ ^uf¡ h^[p¡ S> Åe R>¡ A_¡ A¡L$ Ahõ\pA¡ sõ\f \B Åe R>¡ `Z dV$hp_y¬ L¡$ Ap¡R>p¬ \hp_y¬ _pd _\u g¡[p¡.

                Ap fp¡N_p¬ gnZp¡ _uQ¡ âdpZ¡ R>¡.

(1)        h©jZ_u L$p¡\mudp¬ `pZu cfphp\u a}g¡gu A_¡ k|S>¡gu Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

(2)        h©jZ_p¡ cpN dp¡V$p¡ gpN¡ R>¡.

(3)        h©jZ_p Ap h^¡gp cpN_¡ gB_¡ A¡ cpN_y¬ hS>_ gpN¡ R>¡, A¡ cpN cpf¡ gpN¡ R>¡.

(4)        h©jZ_u L$p¡\mu M¢Qphp_¡ L$pfZ¡ [¡dp¬ kl¡S> ]y$Mphp¡ S>Zpe R>¡. Ap ]y$Mphp¡ L$ped__p¡ lp¡[ _\u.¼ep¬L$ ]¡$Mpe [p¡
S> ]y$Mphp¡ \pe R>¡.

(5)        L$`X$p¬ `l¡f[p¬ L¡$ kpeL$g, õL|$V$f D`f lfhpafhp S>[p¬ hOfphm ]$bphp\u kl¡S> ]y$:M¡ R>¡ A_¡ \p¡X$u ANhX$[p A_ycphe R>¡.

(6)        Äepf¡ hOfphmdp¬ `pL$ \pe A_¡ `pZu_y¬ õ\p_ `fy g¡ [p¡ fp¡Nu dyíL¡$gu A_ych¡ R>¡.

(7)        Apd [p¡ Ap fp¡N L$`X$p¬_u _uQ¡ Y¬L$pB S>[p¡ fp¡N R>¡, `Z [¡ h^u S>[p¬ blpf R>[p¡ \B Åe R>¡. [¡\u kdpS>dp¬ A_¡ rdÓp¡ hÃQ¡-EW$[p¬ ifd A_ych[u `X¡$ R>¡.

(8)        Ap rkhpe Ap fp¡Ndp¬ L$p¡B buÆ Mpk [L$gua `X$[u _\u.

                Ap fp¡N_p fp¡Nu_u Å[ue Æ_dp¬ rir\g[p Aph¡ R>¡. ^Zuhpf `Ð_u kp\¡ ifd-k¬L$p¡Q_¡ L$pfZ¡ `|fu A_¡ kpfu fu[¡ Å[ue kyM cp¡Nhu iL$[p¡ _\u. Apd [p¡ k¬[p_p¡Ð`rÑ dpV¡$ h^fphm bp^L$ _\u lp¡[u. `Z Å¡ Nc®^pfZp AÞe L$pfZ¡ `Z _ \[u lp¡e [p¡ ]$p¡j hOfphm_¡ S> A`pe R>¡.

                Apd [p¡ Ap fp¡N \hp_y¬ L$pfZ ÅZdp¬ Apìey¬ _\u. R>[p¬ kpeL$g D`f b¡khp S>[p¬, kpeL$g D`f gp¬bu khpfu L$fhp\u, `X$u S>hp\u L¡$ hpNu S>hp\u A¬X$ ^kpe, A\X$pe L¡$ ]$bpe [p¡ Aphy¬ b_hp k¬ch R>¡. Aphp k¬Å¡Np¡dp¬ h©jZ A_¡ L$p¡\mu hÃQ¡ `pZu cfpep L$f¡ R>¡. Ap `pZu_¡ Ap¥j^\u k|L$hhy¬ L¡$ Ap¡Ry>¬ L$fhy¬ dyíL¡$g R>¡. Ap D`fp¬[ blz Ap¡R>p qL$õkpdp¬ V$u.bu., L¡$Þkf L¡$ Q¡` gpNhp\u `Z L$p¡\mudp¬ `pZu cfpe R>¡. Apd R>[p¬ h^fphm \hp_y¬ L$p¡B Qp¡½$k L$pfZ _\u.

                h^fphm_y¬ S>¡d L$p¡B Qp¡½$k L$pfZ _\u [¡¡d [¡_u L$p¡B Qp¡½$k ]$hp _\u. Apeyh£]$ rkhpe_u rQqL$Ðkp `Ùr[dp¬ [p¡ Ap_u kpfhpf_u L$p¡B Ap¥j^ ep¡S>_p _\u. iõÓq¾$ep S> A¡L$ [¡_p¡ D`pe d_pe R>¡. L$p¡\mu_y¬ `pZu M¢Qu_¡ blpf L$pY$u _pMhp_y¬ k|Qhpe R>¡, `Z Apd L$ep® `R>u afu\u `pZu c¡Ny¬ \pe R>¡ A_¡ afu L$Y$phhy¬ `X¡$ R>¡. Apd Qpëep S> L$f¡ R>¡. buÆ `Ùr[dp¬ i÷q¾$ep Üpfp L$p¡\mu_y¬ `X$ L$pY$u _Mpe R>¡, S>¡\u `pZu c¡Ny¬ S> _ \pe. Ap fu[¡ Ap fp¡N_u Ap^yr_L$ kpfhpf [p¡ i÷q¾$ep S> R>¡.

                Ap fp¡N_p fp¡Nu_¡ A¡L$ hp[ Ýep_dp¬ fpMhu Å¡BA¡. fp¡Nu_u S>¡hu ÅZL$pfu \pe L¡$ [f[ [¡_u [`pk L$fphhu Å¡BA¡. `p¡[p_p a¡rdgu X$p¡L$V$f_u kgpl g¡hu Å¡BA¡. ifd_p dpep® Ap fp¡N_u ÅZ Å¡ dp¡X$u L$fhpdp¬ Aph¡ A_¡ fp¡N h^y hL$f¡ [p¡ A¡hy¬ `Z b_¡ L¡$ fp¡N AkpÝe L$npdp¬ d|L$pB Åe. Å¡ hl¡gu ÅZL$pfu dm¡ A_¡ fp¡N_u iê$Ap[dp¬ S> kpfhpf iê$ L$fu ]¡$hpe [p¡ fp¡N dV$u `Z Åe. [¡\u fp¡NuA¡ [f[ S> Ap fp¡N_u `p¡[p_p rQqL$ÐkL$_¡ ÅZ L$fu kpfhpf iê$ L$fu ]¡$hp Å¡BA¡.

                Apeyh£]$dp¬ Ap fp¡N_u kpfhpf R>¡. M|b S>|_p¡ Of L$fu Ne¡gp¡ A_¡ h^u Ne¡gp¡ fp¡N li¡ [p¡ Ap¡R>p¡ ape]$p¡ \i¡. kp¡Å¡ E[fi¡, `pZu ^V$i¡ `Z Ap¡Ry>¬ ^V$i¡, `f¬[y Ap kpfhpf\u A¡L$ ape]$p¡ S>ê$f \i¡ L¡$ fp¡N Nd¡ [¡V$gp¡ hOu Nep¡ li¡ [p¡ `Z [¡ hO[p¡ AV$L$u S> S>i¡. Aphu sõ\r[dp¬ fp¡N h^[p¡ AV$L¡$ A_¡ fp¡N_¡ \p¡X$p¡ `pR>p¡ lV$phu `qfsõ\r[dp¬ fp¡N h^[p¡ AVL¡$ A_¡ fp¡N_¡ \p¡X$p¡ `pR>p¡ lV$phu `qfsõ\r[_¡ lmhu L$f¡ [p¡ `Z ^Ϭ R>¡. fp¡N _hp¡, Ap¡R>p¡ A_¡ lmhp¡ li¡ [p¡ S>ê$f ape]$p¡ \i¡.

                iê$Ap[_p fp¡Ndp¬ L¡$ bpmL_¡ \[u h^fphmdp¬ _uQ¡_u kpfhpf\u S> gpc \B iL¡$.

(1)        fp¡Nu_¡ fpÓ¡ k|[u hM[¡ fp¡S> 10 \u 20 N°pd A¡f¬qX$ey¬ (q]$h¡g, L¡$õV$f Ap¡Bg) `phy¬.

(2)        rÓamp N|Nm, L$p¬Q_pf N|Nm, qL$ip¡m N|Nm_u 2+2+2+=6 Np¡mu khpf-kp¬S> 3 hpf Vy$L$X$p L$fu_¡ Nfd `pZu kp\¡ g¡hu. fp¡S>_u 6#3=18 Np¡mu \i¡.

(3)        O[|fp_p¬ `p__¡ kpfu a}V$u QV$Zu S>¡hy¬ L$fu, [¡dp¬ ]$ip¬N g¡` d¡mhu, kl¡S> Nfd L$fu h^fphm D`f gNpX$hp¡ A_¡ `R>u [¡_p D`f ê$ d|L$u ]¡$hy¬.

(4)        Ng _pd_p a}g_p R>p¡X$ \pe R>¡. [¡_p¬ a}g Mfu `X¡$ R>¡ A_¡ Ðep¬ dfu S>¡hy¬ L$pmy bu \pe R>¡. Ap L$pmp bu_y¬ fp¡NuA¡ r_erd[ k¡h_ L$fh¬y.

(5)        A¬X$ D`f [dpLy$_p¬ `p_ bp¬^hp\u gpc \pe R>¡.

D`f

âp¡õV¡$V$_y¬ L¡$Þkf

                -              [d_¡ `¡ipb L$fhpdp¬ [L$gua `X¡$ R>¡ ?

                -              hÃQ¡ `¡ipb AV$L$u AV$L$u_¡ Aph¡ R>¡ ?

                -              `¡ipb L$fu gu^p `R>u `Z [dpfu åg¡X$f `|fu fu[¡ Mpgu _\u \B A¡hp¡ Al¡kpk \ep L$f¡ R>¡ Mfp¡ ?

                -              fpÓ¡ [dpf¡ hpf¬hpf `¡ipb L$fhp EW$hy¬ `X¡$ R>¡ Mfy¬ ?

                -              q]$hk¡ `Z hpf¬hpf `¡ipb L$fhp S>hp_u lpS>[ \ep L$f¡ R>¡ ?

                -              fpÓ¡ [dpf¡ hpf¬hpf `¡ipb L$fhp EW$hy¬ `X¡$ R>¡ Mfy¬ ?

                -              q]$hk¡ `Z hpf¬hpf `¡ipb L$fhp S>hp_u lpS>[ \ep L$f¡ R>¡ ?

                Ap âñp¡dp¬_p dp¡V$p cpN_p âñp¡_p S>hpb Å¡ lp dp¬ Aph[p¬ lp¡e [p¡ [¡d_¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ Ág¡ÞX$_u [L$gua lp¡hp_u k¬cph_p R>¡. Å¡ [d¡ 50 hj®_u Apk`pk_u Apey cp¡Nh[p lp¡ [p¡ [dpf¡ [pÐL$prgL$ X$p¡L$V$f_u kgpl g¡hp_u S>ê$f R>¡.

âp¡õV¡$V$_y¬ L$pd iy¬ R>¡ ?

âp¡õV¡$V$ (`p¥fyjN°¬r\) `yfyj_u âÅ¡Ð`rÑ_u ipfuqfL$ fQ_p_p¡ A¡L$ ANÐe_p¡ rlõkp¡ R>¡. [¡ A¡L$ dp¬kg QuS> R>¡. `¡ipb_u _mu (eyf¡\°p) _u Qp¡`pk [¡ hvV$mpe¡gu R>¡. [¡_y¬ õ\p_ `¡ipb_u L$p¡\mu (åg¡X$f)_p Nmp_u bfp¡bf _uQ¡ `¡ipb _mu_u D`f Np¡W$hpe¡gy¬ R>¡. [¡_p¡ ApL$pf ÅX$p L$p¡gf S>¡hp¡ R>¡, S>¡_p¡ ApNm_p¡ cpN M|g[p¡ R>¡. [¡_u fQ_p N°¬r\Ap¡ A_¡ õ_pey_p rdîZ\u \e¡gu R>¡. Ap N°¬r\Ap¡ [¡_u rhriô$ âhplu DÐ`ß L$f¡ R>¡. S>epf¡ `yfyj_¡ Ap¡N£Td_p¡ A_ych \pe R>¡ Ðepf¡ A¬X$L$p¡jdp¬\u hue® hR|>V¡$ R>¡. Ap [b½¡$ âp¡õV¡$V$ Ág¡ÞX$dp¬\u [¡dp¬ A¡L$ Mpk âL$pf_y¬ âhplu Dd¡fu ]¡$hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡ S>¡ õ`çk® A¡V$g¡ iy¾$pÏAp¡_¡ Å¡d A_¡ õL|$r[® bn¡ R>¡.

AgN AgN âdpZdp¬ h©qÙ :

_p_p R>p¡L$fpAp¡ [\p eyhp_p¡_u âp¡õV¡$V$ âdpZdp¬ _p_u lp¡e R>¡. `Z L$p¡B ANçe L$pfZp¡kf S>¡d S>¡d he h^[u Åe R>¡ [¡d [¡d âp¡õV¡$V$ h^[u Qpg¡ R>¡. ìes¼[N[ fu[¡ h©qÙ_y¬ âdpZ `Z AgN AgN lp¡e R>¡. A_¡ [¡\u [¡_p¬ `qfZpdp¡ `Z AgN AgN lp¡e R>¡.

                kpdpÞe fu[¡ Ap kdN° âqL$ep r_]$p£j (bu_pB_) R>¡ A_¡ Æh_¾$d_p¡ A¡L$ rlõkp¡ S> R>¡. `Z S|>S> ìes¼[_¡ Ap N°¬r\dp¬ L¡$Þkf \B iL¡$ R>¡.

åg¡X$f_u c|rdL$p :

                d|Ók¬N°l L$fhp_u L$p¡\mu S>¡_¡ åg¡X$f L$l¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡ [¡_y¬ L$pd d|Ó_¡ A¡L$Wy¬$ L$fhp_y¬ R>¡. Ahpf_hpf [¡ cfpe A¡V$g¡ [¡_¡ Mpgu L$fhu S>ê$fu b_¡ R>¡, Äepf¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ dp¡V$u \hp gpN¡ R>¡, d[gb [¡dp¬ kp¡Å¡ Aphhp gpN¡ R>¡, Ðepf¡ åg¡X$f_u Mpgu L$fhpdp¬ [L$gua `X¡$ R>¡. ÅZ¡ `¡ipb_u _mu D`f Ly$]$f[¡ `l¡fph¡gp¡ L$p¡gf _mu_y¬ Nmy¬ cvkhp gpN¡ R>¡, A_¡ `¡ipb_p âhpldp¬ ^ud¡ ^ud¡ ê$L$phV$ iê$ \B Åe R>¡. A¡L$ q]$hk [¡ k]¬$[f b¬^ \B iL¡$ R>¡.

[L$gua_p¡ âpf¬c :

                Äepf¡ âp¡õV¡$V$_u [L$gua_p¡ âpf¬c \pe R>¡ Ðepf¡ iê$Ap[dp¬ `¡ipb_u ^pf ^udu `X$hp gpN¡ R>¡. ^ud¡ ^ud¡ `¡ipb_¡ blpf L$pW$hpdp¬ hpf gpNhp gpN¡ R>¡. Mpk L$fu_¡ Å¡ gp¬bp¡ kde `¡ipb AV$L$phu fp¿ep¡ lp¡e [p¡ Aphy¬ Qp¡½$k b_¡ R>¡. L¡$V$gpL$ qL$õkpdp¬ [p¡ L¡$V$guL$ rdr_V$p¡ ky^u `¡ipb blpf _uL$mhp_u fpl Å¡hu `X¡$ R>¡.

S>¬`u åg¡X$f :

                âp¡õV¡$V$_u buÆ r_ip_u R>¡ S>¬`u åg¡X$f. åg¡X$f W¡$L$X$p dpfhp gpN¡ R>¡. hpf¬hpf `¡ipb_u lpS>[ E`X$ep L$f¡ R>¡. [d¡ _m Qpgy L$fp¡, bpfZpdp¬ Qphu a¡fhp¡, blpf_u ^¡f `pR>p afp¡ L¡$ khpf_p `lp¡fdp¬ hl¡gp EW$p¡ L¡$ [dpfu åg¡X$f_y¬ V²$uNf A¡V$gy¬ TX$`\u ]¡$MpB Åe R>¡ L¡$ [¡ `l¡gp¬ [p¡ L$`X$p¬ Mfpb \B Åe R>¡. `¡ipb Ap¡R>p¡ \hp_¡ gu^¡ [dpfu K^dp¬ hpf¬hpf Mg¡g `X$hp gpN¡ R>¡ A_¡ [¡_u [rbe[ D`f `Z Akf iê$ \B Åe R>¡. lh¡ [dpfu âÐe¡L$ âh©r[ `¡ipb_u lpS>[_¡ Ýep_dp¬ fpMu_¡ Np¡W$hhu `X¡$ R>¡. b¡ku_¡ A¡L$^pfp¡ gp¬bp¡ kde âhpk lh¡ L$fu iL$[p _\u. [d¡ l¬d¡ip [dpfu _ÆL$dp¬ S> ¼ep¬L$ V$p¡eg¡V$$_u kNhX$ lp¡e [¡_u Mpk [L¡$]$pfu fpMp¡ R>p¡.

                fpÓ¡ `qfsõ\r[ h^y hZku Åe R>¡. Å¡ d|Ópie cfpB Åe [p¡ [d¡ E^[p lp¡ [p¡ `Z [¡ R>gL$pe Åe R>¡ A_¡ [d¡ `\pfu bNpX$u d|L$p¡ R>p¡. hmu, `uW$_p cpNdp¬ ]$bpZ h^[p¬ qL$X$_u D`f `Z ]$bpZ h^hp gpN¡ R>¡. ¼epf¡L$ [d_¡ k¬`|Z® ågp¡L¡$BS> A¡V$g¡ L¡$ [Ø_ `¡ipb c¡Np \hy¬ `X¡$ R>¡ A_¡ L¡$\¡V$f BrÞÖedp¬ `fp¡hu_¡ blpf L$pY$hp¡ `X¡$ R>¡. L¡$\¡V$f fåbf_u `p¡gu _mu R>¡.

                Ap b^u S> âp¡õV¡$V$_u [L$guap¡ NZpe R>¡.

 

L$gL$Ñp_p X$pµ. kyf¡i bÅ¡fuep_u kgpl :

(L$ÞkëV¬$V$ - L$gL$Ñp d¡qX$L$g qfkQ® BsÞõV$V$eyV$)

Å¡ `qfsõ\r[ blz hZku Q|L$u _ lp¡e [p¡ Mpk L$iy¬ L$fhp_u S>ê$f _\u. Å¡ D`fp¡¼[ gnZp¡ [dpfp Æh_dp¬ ApX$Mugu `¡]$p L$f[p¬ lp¡e A_¡ d|Ópie Ap`p¡Ap` Mpgu \ep _ L$f[y¬ lp¡e, [p¡ kp¥\u DÑd dpN® [dpfp âp¡õV¡$V$_y¬ rõ¾$t_N L$fphu g¡hp_y¬ R>¡.

Å¡ Apdp¬ Y$ug L$fip¡ [p¡ [¡_p¬ L¡$V$gp¬L$ dpW$p `qfZpdp¡ Aphu iL¡$ R>¡. ]pMgp [fuL¡$ -

(1)        âp¡õV¡$BV$uV$uk A\p®[¹ âp¡õV¡$V$_p¡ kp¡Å¡ \B iL¡$ R>¡.

(2)        bu_pB_ (r_]$p£j) âp¡õV¡$V$uL$ lpB`fàg¡kuep (âp¡õV¡$V$ N°¬r\_u A¬]$f_p cpN_y¬ AõhpcprhL$ h©qÙL$fZ) `Z \B iL¡$ R>¡.

(3)        A\hp [p¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ N°¬r\_u A¬]$f L¡$Þkf_p¡ fp¡N `Z iê$ \hp_u iL$e[p fl¡ R>¡.

 

lpB`fàg¡kuep iy¬ R>¡ ?

                âp¡õV¡$V$uV$uk L$p¡B `Z `y¿ehe_p `yfyj_¡ \B iL¡$ R>¡, `Z _p_u he_p gp¡L$p¡dp¬ [¡ h^y kpdpÞe R>¡. Äepf¡ [¡_p\u rhfyÙ bu_pB_ (r_]$p£j) âp¡õV¡$V$ lpB`fàg¡kuep (lpB`f A¡V$g¡ D`fu cpN A_¡ àg¡kuk A¡V$g¡ Y$pmp¡ A\p®[¹ L$p¡jp¡_u h^y `X$[u h©qÙ) S>¡_¡ X$p¡L$V$fu cpjpdp¬ bu`uA¡Q L$l¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡ [¡ heõL$ ìes¼[Ap¡_¡ kpdpÞe fu[¡ \[u budpfu R>¡. Mpk L$fu_¡ 50_u he h^[u Qpg¡ R>¡ [¡d [¡d âp¡õV¡$V$ N°¬r\ dp¡V$u \[u Åe R>¡ A_¡ `¡ipb_u _mudp¬ fyL$phV$ `¡]$p L$f¡ R>¡.`qfZpd¡ `¡ipb `kpf L$fhpdp¬ Mg¡g DÐ`ß hZk[u Åe R>¡. L$l¡hpe R>¡ L¡$ ]$f ÓZdp¬\u A¡L$ `yfyj_¡ `¡ipb_u [L$gua iê$ \B Åe R>¡. S>¡d he h^[u Åe [¡d ]]$w_¡ buÅ D`Öhp¡_p¬ gnZp¡ `Z Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

 

`ròd_p¡ kh£nZ :

                `ròd_p¡ ]¡$ip¡dp¬ S>¡ kh£ L$fhpdp¬ Apìep¡ R>¡ [¡ A¡hy¬ k|Qh¡ R>¡ L¡$ bu`uA¡Q 60_u he hV$phu Q|L¡$gp gNcN 60 V$L$p `yfyjp¡dp¬ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. `f¬[y cpf[_u hkr[ A¡V$gu N¬Åhf R>¡ L¡$ [¡_p Apfp¡Áe bpbp[dp¬ blz¬ rQ¬[p L$fhp_u L$p¡B S>ê$f S>Zp[u _\u. ^Zp A¡hy¬ `Z L$l¡[p lp¡e R>¡ L¡$ 60 `R>u rhL¡$ep¡ hl¡gu MX$u `X¡$ [¡d kpfy¬. R>[p¬ X$p¡¼V$fp¡ dp_¡ R>¡ L¡$ Ap âdpZ h^[y¬ Åe R>¡. S>¡ ìes¼[_¡ bu`uA¡Q lp¡e R>¡ A¡_¡ [pÐL$prgL$ bp\ê$d S>hp_u BÃR>p \ep L$f¡ R>¡. `¡ipb L$ep® `R>u `Z [¡_¡ AkyM füp L$f¡ R>¡. [¡_¡ A¡hy¬ gpN¡ R>¡. L¡$ [¡_u åg¡X$f lSy> `|f¡`|fu Mpgu \B _\u. Ap\u [¡_¡ hpf¬hpf `¡ipb_u lpS>[ \ep L$f¡ R>¡ A_¡ OZu hpf [p¡ rhrQÓ kde¡ Aphu BÃR>p \[u lp¡e R>¡. 

âp¡õV¡$BV$ L¡$Þkf bpü k`pV$u D`f :

                âp¡õV¡$V$_y¬ L$¡Þkf dp¡V$pcpN¡ blpf_p cpNdp¬ L$¡Þkf R>¡. Ap\u iê$Ap[_p cpNdp¬ `yfyj_¡ `¡ipb L$fhpdp¬ L$p¡B [L$gua `X$[u _\u. [¡_p¡ âkpf ^udp¡ lp¡e R>¡. `Z A¬[¡ [¡ ApMp ifufdp¬ a¡gpB Åe R>¡.

                rhð_p dp¡V$p cpN_p ]¡$ip¡dp¬ âp¡õV¡$V$ L¡$Þkf A¡L$ kpdpÞe ìepr^, A_¡ rhL$sõ[ ]¡$ip¡dp¬ d©Ðey_p¬ L$pfZp¡dp¬ [¡_p¡ _¬bf buÅ¡ Aph¡ R>¡. `Z Aphy¬ ip\u b_¡ R>¡ [¡_p¬ L$pfZp¡_p¡ lSy> Aæepk Qpgu füp¡ R>¡. Mp¡fpL$_u kp\¡ [¡_p¡ ku^p¡ k¬b¬^ R>¡ L¡$ L¡$d [¡ `Z lSy> âep¡Np^u_ R>¡. ifpb, ^|d°`p_, Å[ue k¬cp¡N L¡$ `ep®hfZ âñp¡ lSy> QL$pkZu l¡W$m R>¡ R>[p¬ [¡ hpfkpN[ fp¡N R>¡ A¡hu `Z A¡L$ dpÞe[p lh¡ âQrg[ \hp dp¬X$u R>¡.

 

hpfkpN[ gnZ :

S>¡d_p r`[p, ]$p]$p, L$pL$p, cpB hN¡f¡_¡ Å¡ âp¡õV¡$V$_p¡ fp¡N \e¡gp¡ lp¡e [p¡ [¡d_¡ `Z hpfkpdp¬ Ap fp¡N dmhp_u iL$e[p R>¡. _hpB_u hp[ A¡ R>¡ L¡$ Ap fp¡N ApqäL$p [\p L¡$fubue_ ]¡$ip¡dp¬ h^y Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

¼epf¡ R|>`u iê$Ap[ \pe R>¡......

                `¡ipb L$fhp_u [L$gua Äep¬ ky^u L¡$Þkf Ry>`pB_¡ L$pd L$f[y¬ lp¡e R>¡ Ðep¬ ky^u iê$ \[u _\u. Ap\u L¡$Þkf ]$f¡L$ rL$õkpdp¬ fp¡N_p D`f hZ®h¡gp gnZp¡ â]$ri®[ L$f[y¬ _\u. `Z D`fp¡¼[ rQÞlp¡dp¬\u S>¡V$gp¬ h^y ]¡$Mpe [¡V$gp âdpZdp¬ L¡$Þkf lp¡hp_u i¼e[p h^u Åe R>¡. L$gu_uL$g d¡_ua¡õV¡$i_ A¡V$g¡ L$ bpü â]$i®_ fp¡N_p rhL©$[ õhê$`dp¬ dp¡Xy¬$ `Z ]¡$Mp ]¡$ R>¡.

                Å¡ [¡ ifufdp¬ a¡gpB Åe [p¡ `uW$dp¬, b¡W$L$dp¬ A_¡ `¡Xy$_p cpNdp¬ ¼epf¡L$ k[[ ]y$Mphp¡ füp L$f¡ R>¡.

                L¡$V$guL$ hpf A¡hy¬ b_¡ R>¡ L¡$ `¡ipb A¬N¡_u L$p¡B [L$gua _X$[u _\u.

                A¡L$ Aæepk dyS>b k¡L$k lp¡dp£Þk_u Akd[ygp kÅ®[p âp¡õV¡$V$ ìepr\ iê$ \pe R>¡. Mpk L$fu_¡ bu`uA¡Q. `f¬[y L¡$Þkf_u kp\¡ [¡_p¡ L$p¡B k¬b¬^ _\u A¡hy¬ X$p¡L$V$f bÅ¡fuep dp_¡ R>¡. AgbÑ b¬_¡ `qfsõ\r[ A¡L$ S> ]$]$wdp¬ Å¡hp dmu iL¡$ Mfu. `f¬[y bu`uA¡V$ L$f[p¬ L¡$Þkf_u kpfhpf kph AgN `X$u Åe R>¡. Ap\u b¬_¡_¡ `l¡gp¬ AgN `pX$hp S>ê$fu b_¡ R>¡.

 

rhrh^ kpfhpf :

                âp¡õV¡$V$ L¡$Þkf_u kpfhpf fp¡N_y¬ âdpZ, [¡_p¬ gnZp¡, he A_¡ V$¡L$r_L$g A¡L$k`V$wT_u D`gå^ D`f Ap^pqf[ R>¡.

                ¼ep ]$]$w_¡ L$B kpfhpf Ap`hu `X$i¡ [¡_p¡ Ap^pf ^Zu b^u bpb[p¡ D`f Ap^pqf[ R>¡. [¡_¡ dëV$uX$ukuàgu_fu A¡âp¡Q L$l¡ R>¡. [¡_u A¬]$f (1) Ap¢L$p¡gp¡ÆõV$ (N°uL$ iå]$ Ap¢L$p¡i_p¡ A\® \pe S>Õ\p¡ A_¡ gp¡Np¡k_p¡ A\® \pe QQp® - rhQpfZp) (2) f¡qX$ep¡\¡fp`uõV$ (3) e|fp¡gp¡ÆõV$ A_¡ (4) kpBV$p¡`¡\p¡gp¡ÆõV$_u d]$]$_u S>ê$f `X¡$ R>¡.

lp¡dp£_g d¡_uàeyg¡iÞk :

âp¡õV¡$V$ Ág¡ÞX$f_u L$pe®hplu dy¿eÐh¡ `yfyj_p A¡ÞX²$p¡S>Þk _pd_p lp¡dp£Þk D`f fpM¡ R>¡. Å¡ `p¥fyj N°¬r\_p lp¡dp£Þk öph_¡ fp¡L$fhpdp¬ Aph¡ [p¡ âp¡õV¡$V$_p ApX¡$^V$ rhL$pk `pd[p L¡$Þkf_p k¡ëk D`f r_e¬ÓZ d|L$u iL$pe R>¡. kpdpÞe fu[¡ V¡$õV$uk A¡V$g¡ L¡$ h©jZp¡ ]|$f L$fu_¡ Ap Ýe¡e lp¬kg L$fu iL$pe R>¡. X$p¡L$V$fu cpjpdp¬ [¡_¡ Ap¡L$uX¡$L$V$du L$l¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡. Ap Ap¡`f¡i__p¡ Apif¡ ê$. 3,000 MQ® \pe R>¡. `f¬[y L¡$V$gpL$ lp¡dp£Þk A¡qX²$_g Ág¡ÞX$dp¬\u R|>V$p `X¡$ R>¡. [¡ öph_¡ AV$L$phhp dpV¡$ A¡rÞV$A¡ÞX²$p¡S>_ X²$ÁT_p¡ D`ep¡N L$fhp¡ `X¡$ R>¡. ]$pMgp [fuL¡$ a}gyV$pdpBX$ [\p bpBL¡$gL$eyV$pdpBX$ (MQ® ê$.10) S>¡hp¡ Ap¥j^p¡ A`pe R>¡. Ap X²$ÁT d¡Bg lp¡dp£_ f¡k¡àk®_¡ ågp¡L$ L$fu _pM¡ R>¡. `qfZpd¡ lp¡dp£Þk Tf[p¬ b¬^ \B Åe R>¡. X$p¡¼V$fu cpjpdp¬ Ap_¡ L$l¡ R>¡ V$p¡V$g A¡ÞX²$p¡S>_ ågp¡L¡$BS>.

 

dp¡qX$L$g \¡f¡`u :

                S>¡ ]]$wAp¡ `p¡[p_p V¡$õV$uT L$fphhp BÃR>[p _ lp¡e [¡Ap¡ Ap D`pep¡ AS>dphu iL¡$ R>¡. A¡L$ Ap¥j^_p¡ âL$pf R>¡ S>¡_¡ L$l¡ R>¡ ëeyV$_pBTvN _pd_p dNS>_p rlõkpdp¬\u _¡ R|>Vy¬$ `pX¡$ R>¡ [¡_p L$pfZ¡ r`ÃeyV$fu N°¬r\dp¬\u R|>¬Vy¬$ `X¡$ R>¡. h^y âdpZdp¬ lp¡dp£_ L$pd¡ gNpX$hpdp¬ Aph[p¬ Ap`Zp ifuf_u bpep¡gÆL$g rkõV$d ifuf_p öphp¡_¡ bpep¡auX$b¡L$ õhuQ Ap¡a Üpfp AV$L$phu ]¡$ R>¡. `qfZpd¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ h©qÙ AV$L$u Åe R>¡. `Z Ap `qfZpd_¡ Åmhu fpMhp dpV¡$ ]$]$w Æh¡ Ðep¬ ky^u ]$f drl_¡ A¡L$ hpf Ap X²$N g¡hp¬ `X¡$ R>¡. X²$N_y¬ _pd R>¡ Tp¡gpV¡$¼k A_¡ [¡_u qL­$d[ R>¡ ê$. 8,000/-

 

f¡qX$ep¡\¡f¡`u :

                Ap kpfhpf f¡qX$ep¡ A¡L$V$uh õV²$p£V$ued A\hp ap¡õafk Üpfp \pe R>¡. L¡$Þkf_p iê$Ap[_p Npmpdp¬ Ap kpfhpf h^y AkfL$pfL$ _uhX¡$ R>¡. ]$f¡L$ tkqV$N_p ê$. 350/- _p¡ MQ® \pe R>¡. A_¡ 4 \u 6 kápl kpfhpf g¡hu `X¡$ R>¡. `qfZpd¡ L¡$Þkf_p L$p¡jp¡_¡ AkfL$pfL$ fu[ MÐd L$fu _pMhpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡.

               

V²$pÞk-eyf¡\°g fuA¡L$k_ ^u âp¡õV¡$BV$ :

                Å¡ [dpfu âp¡õV¡$V$ Mf¡Mf Ópk]$peL$ _uhX¡$gu lp¡e [p¡ ApS>_u OX$uA¡ kp¥\u DÑd D`pe krS>®L$g A\hp k¬`|Z® fu[¡ âp¡õV¡$V$ L$Y$phu _pMhp_p¡ R>¡. [¡_¡ âp¡õV¡$BV$ A¡L$V$du Ap¡`f¡i_ L$l¡ R>¡. [¡_p¡ MQ® Apif¡ ê$. 10,000/- \pe R>¡. Ap kS>®fudp¬ A¡L$ bpfuL$ V¡$rgõL$p¡` S>__¡rÞÖedp¬ ]$pMg L$fhpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡ A_¡ `R>u TuZp krS>®L$g kp^__u d]$]$\u âp¡õV¡$BV$ L$pY$u g¡hpdp¬ Aph¡ R>¡.

                lh¡ L¡$V$guL$ _hu_ `Ùr[Ap¡ `Z AS>dphpB flu R>¡. S>¡d L¡$, dpB¾$p¡h¡h, g¡Tf qL$fZp¡ A_¡ V¡$åg¡V$p¡ hN¡f¡. `Z Ap b^u hp[p¡ lSy> gp¬bp Npmp_p âep¡Np¡ `R>u S> Mp[fu `|h®L$ D`ep¡Ndp¬ gB iL$pe R>¡.

D`f 

kp¡Å (OEDENJA)

 

ifuf kl¡S> ÅXy¬$ lp¡e, kl¡S> cfph]$pf lp¡e, kl¡S> azg¡gy lp¡e [¡ kp¥_¡ Nd¡. `Z [¡ âpL©$[ lp¡hy¬ Å¡BA¡, rhL©$[ _rl. ifuf¡ kp¡Å¡ QX¡$ R>¡. Ðepf¡ S>¡ cpN¡ kp¡Å QX$ep lp¡e [¡ cpN azgu Åe R>¡, - D`ku Åe R>¡. buÅ A¬N L$f[p¬ [¡ A¬N ÅX$p¡ gpN¡ R>¡. `Z [¡ Å¡hy¬ Nd[y¬ _\u. Ap¬M_¡ ê$Q[y¬ _\u. A¡ _fu rhL©$r[ R>¡. A¡L$ Å[_p¡ fp¡N R>¡. A_¡ L¡$V$gp¬L$ ce¬L$f fp¡N_y¬ gnZ `Z R>¡.

            kp¡Å_¡ Apeyh£]$dp¬ ip¡\ A_¡ A¬N°¡Ædp¬BX$uep L$l¡ R>¡. QfL$k¬rl[p_p k|Óõ\p_dp¬ dp¬ rÓip¡¡\ue _pd_p¡ AY$pfdp¡ AÝepe Ap kp¡Å D`f S> R>¡. kp¡Å_p kp¡\ D`fp¬[ ip¡a _¡ ðe\y A¡d b¡ _pd buÅ R>¡. Äepf¡ BX$uepdp¬ `pL$ \hp gpN¡ A¡V$g¡ [¡ BÞag¡d¡i_ \B Åe. Ap fu[¡ _pdp¡_u c|g c|gpdZu R>¡.

 

kp¡Å_u c|rdL$p

kp¡Å_y¬ õ\p_ ÐhQp A_¡ dp¬k_u hÃQ¡ R>¡. Äep¬-Äep¬ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ Ðep¬-Ðep¬ Ap b¡ Öìep¡_u hÃQ¡ ]$p¡j `p¡[p_u Akf S>Þdph¡ R>¡.

            A_¡ b^p S> kp¡Å rÓ]$p¡j S> lp¡e R>¡. A¡V$g¡ L¡$ [¡dp¬ ÓZ¡e ]$p¡jp¡ bNX¡$gp lp¡e R>¡. kp\¡ gp¡lu bNX$hp_¡ klL$pf `Z S>ê$fu R>¡. Ap fu[¡ hpey, r`Ñ, L$a ÓZ ]$p¡j D`fp¬[ gp¡lu, dp¬k A_¡ ÐhQp_u Örô$ `Z kp¡Ådp¬ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

            ApMp ifufdp¬ fk^p[y_y¬ k[[ `qfc°dZ \pe R>¡. [¡ `p¡[p_u kp\¡ kp[¡e ^p[y_p¡ L$pQp¡ kpdp_, ]$f¡L$ A¬N D`p¬Np¡_¡ A_yLy$m L$p¡j r_dp®Z dpV¡$_u L$pQu kpdN°u âpZhpey A_¡ `p¡jpL$ [Ðhp¡ gB_¡ Alr_®i ^|d¡ R>¡. ifuf_p kph R>¡hpX$p_p, _p_pdp¬ _p_p A_¡ Ap`Z¡ S>¡ Å¡ep L¡$ ÅÎep _ lp¡e [¡hp â]¡$idp¬ `Z [¡ k[[ ^|d[p¬ fl¡ R>¡, ]$f¡L$ L$p¡j, ]$f¡L$ ^p[y, ]$f¡L$ A¬N, ]$f¡L$ Aheh `p¡[p_p ^kpfp_u `|r[® L$f¡ R>¡. `p¡jZ d¡mh¡ R>¡, _hy¬ bm âpá L$f¡ R>¡. Æh__p¡ ^bL$pf Tug¡ R>¡. âpZhpey d¡mh¡ R>¡. A_¡ `p¡[p_pdp¬ fl¡gp¡ L$Qfp¡, A¬Npfhpey, dm hN¡f¡ [¡dp¬ W$pgh¡ R>¡. Ap q¾$ep A¡L$ kfMu, r_rh®fp¡^, kfMu fu[¡ Qpëep L$f¡ [p¡ Apfp¡Áe_y¬ gnZ R>¡.

            `Z Äep¬ [¡_¡ Ahfp¡^ _X¡$, [¡ ApNm S>B _ iL¡$, [¡ ApXy$ a¬V$pe, [¡ fõ[p¡ R>p¬X¡ A_¡ dp¬k [\p ÐhQp_u hÃQ¡_u S>Áepdp¬ Aphu `X$ph _pM¡ Ðepf¡ kp¡Å¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. S>¡V$gp¡ ]$p¡j cpf¡, S>¡V$gp¡ ^kpfp¡ h^pf¡, S>¡V$gp¡ fp¡Nu ]y$b®m [¡V$gp¡ kp¡Å¡ dp¡V$p¡ gpN¡. Apd kp¡Å¡ Aphhp_u Ap dy¿e hp[ R>¡. [¡_¡ kp]$u fu[¡ kdÅhu R>¡. [¡_p¡ A\® A¡hp¡ _\u L¡$ [¡ Mf¡Mf ApV$gu kp]$u R>¡. M|b AV$`V$u A_¡ AS>_bu S>¡hu Ap âq¾$ep R>¡. kpdpÞe dpZk kdÆ iL¡$ [¡V$gu kl¡gu cpjp L$fhpdp¬ [¡_¡ `Z kl¡gu b_phhu `X$u R>¡.

 

kp¬â[ rhop_ iy¬ L$l¡ R>¡ ?

kp¡Å¡ dpV¡$ kp¬â[ rhop_ _uQ¡_p¬ L$pfZp¡ Ap`¡ R>¡.

1.         ifufdp¬ f¼[pq]$ hl_ L$f_pfp õÓp¡[p¡_u q]$hpgp¡dp¬\u dpÓ âpZhpey A_¡ `pZu S> Aph-Å L$fu iL¡$ R>¡. âp¡V$u_ S>¡hp [Ðhp¡ õÓp¡[p¡_u q]$hpg_u blpf _uL$mu iL$[p _\u, `f¬[y L¡$V$gp¬L$ k¬Å¡Np¡dp¬ Å¡ [¡ õÓp¡[k_u q]$hpg c¡]$u_¡ [fg `]$p\p£ kp\¡ blpf _uL$mu Åe [p¡ [¡_p S>dph_¡ L$pfZ¡ kp¡Å \[p¬ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

2.         d|Ó`vX$ (L$uX$_u) _u ]y$sóedp¬ h^pf¡ `X$[p¬ Apë¿eydu__y¬ r_óL$pk_ \[p¬ A_¡ Mp¡fpL$ Üpfp [¡_u `|[®[p _ \[p¬, kp¡Å \[p¬ lp¡e R>¡.

3.         ifuf_u ^p_yAp¡dp¬ ghZ Öìep¡_p¡ h^pf¡ `X$[p k¬Qe \hp_¡ L$pfZ¡ `Z kp¡Å \hp_u k¬cph_p h^u Åe R>¡.

4.         ù]$efp¡Ndp¬ fL$[k¬Qpf_u A¬]$f [L$gua \hp_¡ L$pfZ¡ A_¡ åg¡X$â¡kf M|b h^u S>hp\u kp¡Å \B Åe R>¡.

5.         gp¡ludp¬ ghZS>g (kp¡X$ued L$gp¡fpBX$) _y¬ âdpZ h^u S>hp\u, kp¡Å h^u S>hp_u k¬cph_p fl¡ R>¡.

A¬N°¡Æ iå]$ BX$uep A_¡ BÞça¡g¡d¡_i_ c¡]$ kdS>hp S>¡hp¡ R>¡. b¬_¡dp¬ kp¡Å¡ [p¡ lp¡e S> R>¡. `f¬[y, BX$udp Apæe¬[f L$pfZp¡\u \pe R>¡. ]$p.[. d|Ót`X$_u Mfpbu_¡ gB_¡ `N¡ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡ R>¡. Ap kp¡Å AX$D[f \pe R>¡. A_¡ L$p¡B hpf k[[ `Z fl¡ R>¡. `f¬[y [¡dp¬ `pL$ \[p¡ _\u. Äepf¡ BÞça¡g¡d¡i_ bpü L$pfZp¡\u \pe R>¡. ]$p.[. [d¡ `X$ep A_¡ `R>X$pV$\u kp¡Å¡ Apìep¡, Ap S>Áep gpg \B Åe, Nfd gpN¡, lp\ gNph[p ]y$:M¡, [¡dp¬ ]y$:Mphp¡ `Z \pe A_ Äep¬ kp¡Å¡ Apìep¡ lp¡e [¡ A¬N¡ `p¡[p_y¬ L$pd bfpbf L$fu iL¡$ _rl. Aphy¬ BX$udpdp¬ \[y _\u.

            hmu BÞçag¡d¡i_dp¬ `pL$ `Z \pe R>¡. A_¡ [¡\u [¡dp¬ gbL$pfp h^¡ R>¡. ApNm S>[p¬ Ap Å[_p¡ kp¡Å¡ NydX$p (rhÖ^u) _y¬ õhê$` `L$X¡$ R>¡. [¡ `pL$[p¬ apV¡$ R>¡ A_¡ QpdX$u apV$[p¬ [¡ h°Z A¡V$g¡ ^p_y¬ õhê$` ^pfZ L$f¡ R>¡. [¡\u BÞçag¡d¡i__¡ Apeyh£]$_u `qfcpjpdp¬ h°Zip¡\ `Z L$l¡ R>¡.

            A¡Vg¡ kp¬â[ rhop_dp¬ h`fp[p Ap b¬_¡ iå]$p¡ hÃQ¡_p¡ [aph[ kdS>hp¡ S>ê$fu R>¡.

 

Apeyh£]$_p d[¡

Apeyh£]$_p d[¡ kp¡Å_p dy¿e b¡ âL$pf R>¡. (1) bpü L$pfZp¡\u \[p¡ Arc^p[S> ip¡\ S>¡_¡ BÞagd¡i_ L$lu iL$pe. (2) Ap¬æe[f L$pfZp¡ A¡V$g¡ ipfuqfL$ ]y$rô$\u \[p¡ r_S> ip¡\. r_S> ip¡\_¡ BX$uep kp\¡ kfMphu iL$pe. ArcOp[S> ip¡\_¡ ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\ `Z L$l¡ R>¡.

            blpf_p õÓp¡[kp¡_¡ A_ykf_pfp hpey, r`Ñ, L$a hN¡f¡ ]$p¡jp¡ Äepf¡ bNX¡$ Ðepf¡ dpN®_¡ fp¡L$u_¡ ip¡\_¡ `¡]$p L$f¡ R>¡.

 

ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\

            lh¡ ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\dp¬ Ap ]$p¡jp¡ ¼ep¬ A_¡ L¡$hu fu[¡ Apìep [¡ dy¿e âñ kp¥_¡ \pe. Atl ip÷L$pf [¡_u õ`ô$[p L$f¡  R>¡. r_S> ip¡\dp¬ [p¡ Apæe¬[f rhL©$r[_¡ gB_¡ ]$p¡j bNX$u_¡ fp¡N S>Þdph¡ R>¡. Äepf¡ ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\dp¬ ArcOp[\u `l¡gp Ar[ TX$`\u kp¡Å¡ QX¡$ R>¡. A_¡ [¡ hM[¡ S> õ\pr_L$ ]$p¡jp¡ âLy$r`[ \B_¡, ]y$ô$ \B_¡ bNX¡$ R>¡, A¡V$g¡ ]$p¡j_u ]y$rô$ [p¡ ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\dp¬ `Z \pe R>¡.

            A¡V$g¡ kp]$u cpjpdp¬ L$luA¡ [p¡ _uQ¡_p ÓZ L$pfZp¡ ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\ \pe R>¡.

1.         hpNhp L$fhp\u S>¡dL¡$ `R>X$phy¬, hpNhy¬, `X$hy¬, dpfpdpfu \hu, L$p¡B l\uepf hpNhy¬, ^khy¬, Ry>¬]$phy¬, Y$kX$phy¬ A\X$phy¬, ]$bphy¬, L$Qfphy¬, cp¬Nu S>hy¬, Mku S>hy¬, hN¡f¡\u Ap¡tQ[p¡ kpÅ¡ QX¡$ R>¡. Ap`Z_¡ Aphp kpdpÞe A_ych \[p¡ S> fl¡ R>¡.

2.         L$p¡B T¡fu h_õ`r[_p k¬`L$®\u Ap dpV¡$_y¬ DÑd D]$plfZ cugpdp¡ R>¡. cugpdp¡ [p¡X$hp, Ry>¬]$[p, L$p`[p L¡$ `L$X$p[p¬ S>¡_¡ dpaL$ _ Aph[p¡ lp¡e [¡_¡ [¡ DX¡$ R>¡. A_¡ ifuf kp¡Å¡ Aphu S>hp_u k¬cph_p fl¡ R>¡. kdpÞe dp¡Yy¬$ azgu_¡ Y$p¡g S>¡hy¬ \B Åe R>¡.

3.         L$p¡B T¡fu S>¬[y_p L$fX$hp\u [f[ S> kpÅ¡ QX¡$ R>¡. A¡ S> fu[¡ fp[¡ ky[p lp¡BA¡ A_¡ AdyL$ Å[_p S>¬[y `¡ipb L$fu Åe L¡$ L$fX$u Åe [p¡ kp¡Å¡ QX¡$gp¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Apd ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\_p L$pfZp¡ Å¡ep [¡_p L$p¡B rhi¡$j c¡]$ _\u.

 

r_S> kp¡\

[d¡ khpf¡ `\pfudp¬ EW$p¡ A_¡ b°i L$f[p¬ Afukp kpd¡ Dcp flp¡ [p¡ dp¡Y¡$ \p¡\f Å¡hp dm¡. [d_¡ rhQpf Aph¡ L¡$ Ap iy¬ \ey¬ ? `X$ep _\u, hpÁey¬ _\u, L¬$B L$fX$ey¬ _\u, R>[p¬ Ap kp¡Å¡ ¼ep¬\u Apìep¡ ? L¬$B kdS>_ _ `X$[p¬ Of_p_¡ `|R>p¡ Ap kp¡Å¡ Å¡ep¡ ? L¡$d \ep¡ li¡ ? [f[ S> N©rlZu L$l¡i¡, L¡$d c|gu Nep fpÓ¡ _p `pX$u l[u. Ap ]$lv ApMu fp[ af[y¬ af[y¬ dp¢ A¡ `|Áe¬y.

            Ap`Z¡ ApNm Å¡B Nep [¡ âdpZ¡ L$p¡B blpf_p L$pfZ¡ kp¡Å Aph¡ [¡ ApN¬[yL$ ip¡\. `Z ifuf_u A¬]$f_p L$pfZp¡ kp¡Å Aph¡ [¡ r_S> kp¡\. Alv Ap`Z¡ [¡ A¬N¡ h^y rhQpf L$fuiy¬.

 

L$pfZp¡

kp¡Å_p L$pfZp¡_u rhN[p¡ ipõÓL$pf¡ Ap fu[¡ Ap`u R>¡.

1.         Å¡ L$p¡B k¬ip¡^_ L$fph¡ A_¡ [¡dp¬ Nag[ \B Åe [p¡ kp¡Å Aph¡. k¬ip¡^_ A¡V$g¡ `¬QL$d® A¡V$g¡ `¬QL$d® hd_-rhf¡Q_-bsõ[-_õe fL$[dp¡nZ_u q¾$epAp¡, ApS>¡ Ap`Z¡ Ðep¬ blz âdpZdp¬ Å¡hp _\u dm[y¬. `Z QfL$_p hM[dp¬ k¬ip¡^_ dp¡V$p `pep D`f \[y¬ li¡, [¡\u Äep¬ Ðep¬ k¬ip¡^__u nr[_¡ fp¡N_p L$pfZ [fuL¡$ b[pìey¬ lp¡e R>¡.

2.         h^y `X$[p D`hpk A\hp c|Mdfp¡, ^Zp gp¡L$p¡ ÅZu Å¡B_¡ ^d® L¡$ kÐepN°l dpV¡$ D`hpk L$f¡ R>¡. Äepf¡ ^Zp¬_¡ Mphp S> _\u dm[y¬, b¬_¡dp¬ kp¡Å \hp_y¬ b_¡ R>¡.

3.         Apmky õhcph, `X$u fl¡hp_u h©rÑ, ApMp¡ q]$hk k|B fl¡hp_u V¡$h\u `Z kp¡Å Aph¡ .

3.         S>¡ ìes¼[ c|¿ep¡ lp¡e, S>¡Z¡ D`hpk L$ep® lp¡e, S>¡ Ai¼[ lp¡e [¡hu ìes¼[ S>¡ h^y `X$[p npf, MpV$p â]$p\®, Nfd A_¡ S>g]$ fkp¡B L¡$ cpf¡ hp_Nu Mpe [p¡ kp¡Å QX¡$.

5.         ]$lv [p¡ kp¡Å L$fhpdp¬ `l¡gp¡ _¬bf ^fph¡ R>¡. h^y `X$[y¬ ]$lv Mphy¬ L¡$ kp¬S>¡ ]$lv Mphy¬ _ Å¡BA¡. _rl[f kp¡Å QX¡$.

6.         Å¡ L$p¡B_¡ dpV$u Mphp_u V¡$h lp¡e [p¡ [¡_¡ \p¡\f QX¡$. bpmL$p¡ A_¡ kN®cp ÷u_¡ Ap_u Mpk V¡$h lp¡e R>¡.

7.         L$pQp¡-kX¡$gp¡-h^pf¡ `X$[p¡ `pL$u Ne¡gp¡-AMp^ `]$p\® L¡$ rhê$Ý^ Aplpf Mphpdp¬ Aph¡ [p¡ kp¡Å¡ QX¡$.

8.         Mphpdp¬ T¡f Aphu Åe [p¡ `Z kp¡Å QX¡$.

9.         âkyr[ ]$frdep_ gp¡lu_u Ap¡R> lp¡e [p¡ `Z kp¡Å QX¡$.

10.       Ai®, S>gp¡]$f, ù]$efp¡N, L$uX$_u_u budpfu S>¡hp fp¡Np¡dp¬ kp¡Å QX¡$.

 D`f

kp¡Å L¡$hu fu[¡ Aph¡ ?

            D`f_p L$p¡B `Z L$pfZ b_¡ [¡\u ]$p¡jp¡ L$p¡`¡, kp¡Ådp¬ ÓZ¡e ]$p¡jp¡ L$p¡`¡ R>¡. L$p¡B`Z h^y L$p¡`¡ [p¡ L$p¡B Ap¡R>p `Z ÓZ¡e ]$p¡jp¡ L$p¡`u_¡ ]$p¡jp¡ A_¡ ^p[yAp¡ hl_ L$f_pfu V²¡$L$_¡ fp¡Nu ]¡$ R>¡. S>¡ S>ÁepA¡ Ap ]$p¡jp¡ hl¡[p hl¡[p AV$L$u Åe R>¡. Ðep¬ [¡_p¡ cfphp¡ \pe R>¡. S>¡ kp¡Å õhê$`¡ Örô$ Np¡Qf \pe R>¡.

            Ap dpV¡$ ip÷L$pf¡ L$l¡ R>¡ L¡$ Äepf¡ âL$p¡r`[ \e¡gp ]$p¡jp¡ R>p[u_p cpNdp¬ k¬rQ[ \pe R>¡. Ðepf¡ ifuf_p D`f_p cpNdp¬ kp¡Å DÐ`ß \pe R>¡. Äepf¡ ]$p¡jp¡ hpey_p õ\p_dp¬ k¬rQ[ \pe R>¡. Ðepf¡ kp¡Å¡ _uQ¡_p cpNp¡dp¬ \[p¡ lp¡e R>¡. A_¡ Å¡ ]$p¡jp¡ ifuf_p dÝecpNdp¬ k¬rQ[ \pe [p¡ ifuf_u hÃQ¡ kp¡Å¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Å¡ AdyL$ A¡L$p]$ A¬Ndp¬ ]$p¡jp¡ S>dp \ep lp¡e [p¡ [¡ A¬N¡ `yf[p¡ kp¡Å¡ QX¡$ R>¡.

 

`h® ê$`

            kp¡Å \hp_p lp¡e [¡_p¬ `l¡gp Qp¡½$k âL$pf_p gnZp¡ \[p ¬lp¡e R>¡. S>¡_¡ Å¡B_¡ L$lu iL$pe L¡$ kp¡Å¡ Aphhp_p¡ R>¡. Ap gnZp¡dp¬ dy¿e gnZp¡ _uQ¡ âdpZ¡ R>¡.

1.         kp¡Å¡ Äep¬ Aphhp_p¡ lp¡e [¡ cpN buÅ cpN L$f[p¬ kl¡S> h^y Nfd gpN¡ R>¡. lp\u_u l\¡gu d|L$u Ap ÅZu iL$p. R>¡.

2.         Ap¬Mp¡ hN¡fdp¬ kl¡S> bm[fp \[u lp¡e R>¡.

3.         iufpAp¡ M¢Qphp gpN¡ R>¡.

4.         Äep¬ kp¡Å¡ Aphhp_p¡ lp¡e [¡ cpN cpf¡ \B Åe R>¡.

            f¼[ A_¡ L$a_p Ap gnZp¡ lp¡e R>¡. gp¡ludp¬ Ar” [Ðh rhi¡j lp¡hp\u [¡ bm[fp gnZp¡ A_¡ L$a cpf¡ lp¡hp\u [¡ cpf¡`Z_p gnZp¡ â]$iw[ L$f¡ R>¡.

 D`f

kpdpÞe gnZp¡

            kp¡Å¡ Mf¡Mf Aph¡ Ðepf¡ [¡_p gnZp¡ D`f\u [¡ ÅZu iL$pe R>¡. Ap gnZp¡ ]$p¡jp_ykpf `Z lp¡e R>¡. A_¡ kh® kpdpÞe `Z lp¡e R>¡. iê$Ap[dp¬ Ap`Z¡ kpdpÞe gnZp¡ Å¡BA¡.

1.         S>¡ S>ÁepA¡ kp¡Å¡ Apìep¡ lp¡e [¡ cpN cpf¡ \B Åe R>¡. kpdpÞe fu[¡ Ap`Z_¡ Ap`Zp ifuf_p cpNp¡ cpf¡ gpN[p _\u. `f¬[y Ap fp¡Ndp¬ [¡ cpN hS>_]$pf gpN¡ R>¡.

2.         kp¡Å¡ Asõ\f fl¡, [¡ ¼epf¡ h^¡ R>¡ [p¡ ¼epf¡L$ ^V¡$ R>¡. ¼epf¡L$ A¡L$ õ\p_¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡ [p¡ ¼epf¡L$ buÅ S>ÁepA¡ S>[p¡ füp¡ lp¡e R>¡.

3.         kp¡Å_u S>ÁepA¡ Dcpf-V¡$L$fp¡-D`ku Åe R>¡.

4.         kp¡Å_p¡ cpN buÅ cpN L$f[p¬ Nfd gpN¡ R>¡.

5.         iufpAp¡ `p[mu `X$u Åe R>¡.

6.         A¬Np¡ rhhZ® \B Åe R>¡, A¡V$g¡ f¬Np¡ b]$gpB Åe R>¡.

7.         QpdX$u_u S>ÁepA¡ hpm_u fy¬hpV$u cu E\B Åe R>¡.

8.         QpdX$u M¢QpB_¡ QdL$[u \B NB lp¡e R>¡.

9.         S>¡ A¬Ndp¬ kp¡Å¡ lp¡e [¡_u L$pd L$fhp_u is¼[ ^V$u Åe R>¡.

10.       [¡dp¬ bm[fp L¡$ ]y$Mphp¡ `Z \pe R>¡.

 D`f

hp[S>Þe kp¡Å_p gnZp¡

1.         [¡ af[p¡ fl¡ R>¡. A¡L$ õ\p_¡\u buS>¡ Mk[p¡ lp¡e R>¡.

2.         h^^V$ k[[ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

3.         kp¡Å_u S>Áep_u QpdX$u `p[mu `X$u Åe R>¡.

4.         QpdX$u kyL$pB Ne¡gu lp¡e R>¡.

5.         [¡ fp[u L¡$ L$pmu Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

6.         QpdX$udp¬ õ`i® op_ OV$u Åe R>¡, ]y$:Mphp¡ h^u Åe R>¡.

7.         Å¡ kp¡Å_¡ ]$bphhpdp¬ Aph¡ [p¡ [¡ ]$bpB Åe R>¡ A_¡ _p_p¡ \B Åe R>¡.

8.         cpf gB g¡[p¬ kp¡Å¡ `pR>p¡ d|m sõ\[udp¬ Aphu Åe R>¡.

9.         q]$hk¡ kp¡Å¡ h^¡ R>¡, fpÓ¡ OV¡$ R>¡.

 D`f

r`Ñ S>Þe kp¡Å_p gnZp¡

1.         kp¡Å_¡ lp\ gNphhp\u ky¬hpmp¡ gpN¡ R>¡.

2.         [¡dp¬ kl¡S> hpk Aph¡ R>¡.

3.         fp[¡ `ump¡ L¡$ L$pmp¡ \B Åe R>¡.

4.         fp¡Nu_¡ [ph, Q½$f Aph¡ R>¡.

5.         `fk¡hp¡ h^y \pe R>¡.

6.         [fk h^y gpN¡ R>¡.

7.         bm[fp \pe R>¡.

8.         lp\ gNphhp\u ]y$M¡ R>¡.

 D`f

L$aS>Þe kp¡Å_p gnZp¡

1.         kp¡Ådp¬ cpf¡`Ϭ gpN¡ R>¡.

2.         [¡ sõ\f lp¡e R>¡, A¡L$ S> S>ÁepA¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

3.         [¡ kl¡S> au½$p f¬N_p¡ lp¡e R>¡.

4.         fp¡Nu_¡ Aê$rQ \pe R>¡.

5.         gpm `Z `X¡$ R>¡.

6.         K^ h^y Aph¡ R>¡.

7.         Ar”dp¬^ \B Åe R>¡.

8.         [¡ L$W$Z lp¡e R>¡.

9.         [¡_¡ Ap¬Nmu\u ]$bph[p MpX$p¡ `X¡$ R>¡.

10.       fpÓ¡ kp¡Å hO¡ R>¡. q]$hk¡ ^V¡$ R>¡.

 D`f

kpÝe kpÝe[p

            S>¡ fp¡Nudp¬ dp¬k Ap¡Ry>¬ \[y¬ _ lp¡e, A¡L$ S> ]$p¡j\u \[p¡ lp¡e, [pÅ¡ lp¡e, fp¡Nu bmhp_ lp¡e [p¡ fp¡N kl¡gpB\u dV¡$ R>¡.

            Å¡ fp¡Nu ]y$b®m lp¡e, kp¡Å¡ gp¬bp kde_p¡ lp¡e, kp¡Å D`f rifpAp¡_p Åm ]¡$Mp[p¬ lp¡e, S>¡dp¬\u `pZu Td[y¬ lp¡e, S>¡ ApMp ifuf¡ lp¡e, S>¡ rÓ]$p¡j S>Þe [¡ fp¡N dV$hp¡ A^fp¡ R¡.

 

kp¡Å_u kpfhpf

            rQs¼Ðkpdp¬ QfL$ î¡óW$ NZpe R>¡. ApS>¡ `Z [¡ Ap^pfc|[ N°¬\ NZpe R>¡. [¡\u QfL$k¬rl[p_p rQqL$Ðkp õ\p__p 12dp AÝepepdp¬ ðe\y rQqL$ÐkpÝedp¬ kp¡Å_p b[ph¡gp D`Qpfp¡dp¬\u D`ep¡Nu hp[p¡ Alv L$fuiy¬.

            QfL¡$ iê$Ap[dp¬ S> g¿ey¬ L¡$ bg-]$p¡j A_¡ L$pm_p ÅZL$pf h¥^p¡ r_]$p_-]$p¡$j F>[y\u rh`fu[ ApQpf\u kp¡Å_u kpfhpf L$fhu Å¡BA¡. [¡_p¡ A\® A¡ \ep¡ L¡$ h¥Û_¡ fp¡Nu_p bmhp¡, fp¡N_p ]$p¡jp¡_u âbm[p_p¡ A_¡ L$B F>[y Qpg¡ R>¡ [¡_u kp¥ â\d ÅZL$pfu lp¡hu Å¡BA¡. [¡ `R>u S> [¡Z¡ rQqL$Ðkp L$fhpdp¬ âh©Ñ \hy¬ Å¡BA¡.

            A_¡ rQqL$Ðkp L$fhp_p¡ d|m rkÙp¬[ `Z kdÅhu ]$u^p¡. S>¡ L$pfZp¡\u fp¡N \pe [¡ r_]$p_, S>¡ ]$p¡j\u fp¡N \pe [¡ F>[y. Ap ÓZ¡e\u rh`fu[ L$fZu L$fu fp¡N_u kpfhpf L$fhu Å¡BA¡. rh`fu[ L$fZu A¡V$g¡ fp¡N_y¬ S>¡ L$pfZ lp¡e [¡_p¡ [¡ ÐepN L$fhp_p¡ S>. [ØD`fp¬[ S>¡ L$pfZ\u fp¡N \ep¡ lp¡e [¡_p\u rhê$Ù âh©rÑ_¡ A`_phhu ]$p.[. blz MpVy$ Mphp\u kp¡Å QX$ep lp¡e [p¡ MpV$u QuÅ¡ Mphu b¬^ L$fhu S>, A_¡ MpV$p fk_y¬ dpfZ L$f¡ [¡hu QuÅ¡ Mphu b¬^ L$fhu S>, A_¡ MpV$p fk_y¬ dpfZ L$f¡ [¡hu QuÅ¡ Mphu, [¡hy¬ S> ]$p¡j_y¬ Å¡ L$a\u kp¡Å QX$ep lp¡e [p¡ L$aL$pfL$ `]$p\p£_y¬ k¡h_ b¬^ L$fu L$a rhfp¡^u `]$p\p£_y¬ k¡h_ iê$ L$fhy¬ A_¡ Å¡ iu[L$pmdp¬ kp¡Å Aph[p lp¡e [p¡ DóZp¡`Qpf L$fhp¡. DóZL$pmdp¬ kp¡Å Aph[p¬ lp¡e [p¡ iu[p¡`Qpf L$fhp¡. Ap \ep¬ fp¡N_¡ _pby]$ L$fhp_p¬ âpf¬rcL$ rkÙp¬[.

            [¡_¡ S>fp h^y JX$p D[fu buÅ rkÙp¬[p¡ `Z b[ph¡ R>¡.

1)        Å¡ Apd ]$p¡j\u kp¡Å_u DÐ`rÑ \B lp¡e [p¡ `l¡gp¬ g¬O_ L$fphu-`pQ_ Ap¥j^p¡\u ]$]$w_u kpfhpf L$fhu. Apd A¡V$g¡ L$pQy, b¬O_ L$fhp\u Ar” D`f _hp¡ cpf Aphi¡ _rl, [¡\u `X$[f fl¡gp L$pdp¡ L$fi¡. S>¡ ]$frdep_ L$pQp ]$p¡jp¡_y¬ `pQ_ L$fi¡ A¡V$g¡ S>¡V$gp g¬O_ \B iL¡$ [¡V$gp L$fhp. [¡ `R>u `pQ_ Ap¥j^p¡ Ap`hp¬ S>¡ bpL$u fl¡gp Apd `Z `Qphu _pMi¡.

2)        Å¡ ]$p¡jp¡ h^u S>hp\u kp¡Å \ep lp¡e hd_ rhf¡Q_ Üpfp k¬ip¡^_ L$fhy¬ S>ê$fu R>¡ A_¡ fu[¡ h^¡gp ]$p¡jp¡_¡ ifuf_u blpf a¢L$u ]¡$hp Å¡BA¡.

3)        Å¡ dp\pdp¬ kp¡Å¡ Apìep¡ lp¡e [p¡ rifp¡-rhf¡Q_ _õe Üpfp dp\pdp¬ fl¡gp ]$p¡jp¡_¡ blpf L$pY$hp Å¡BA¡. _õe A¡V$g¡ _pL$dp¬ ]$hp _pMu L$fhpdp¬ Aph[u kpfhpf. rifp¡rhf¡Q_ A¡V$g¡ dp\pdp¬ fl¡gp ]$p¡jp¡_¡ blpf L$pY$hp dpV¡$_u `Ùr[_y¬ _pd, Apd dp\pdp¬ fl¡gp ]$p¡jp¡ _õe Üpfp blpf L$pY$hp_p¡ D`]¡$i Apàep¡ R>¡.

4)        ifufdp¬ Å¡ _uQ¡_p cp¡Ndp¬ kp¡Å lp¡e [¡ rhf¡Q_ Üpfp [¡_u kpfhpf L$fhu, rhf¡Q_ A¡V$g¡ Sy>gpb. Apeyh£]$dp¬ rhrh^ Å[_p rhf¡Q_ Üpfp ]$p¡jp¡_¡ Ny]$p dpN£\u blpf L$pY$hp_u `Ùr[ âQgu[ R>¡.

5)        Å¡ ifuf_p D`f_p cpNdp¬ kp¡Å Aph[p lp¡e [p¡ hd_ Üpfp [¡_q rQqL$Ðkp L$fhu hd_ A¡V$g¡ DgV$u. dyM hpV¡$ ifuf_p D`f_p cpNp¡_p ]$p¡jp¡_¡ blpf L$pY$hp_u Ap `Ùr[ R>¡.

6)        Å¡ h^y `X$[p¬ QuL$Zp¬ `]$p\p£ Mphp\u kp¡Å QX$ep lp¡e [p¡ g|Mp Öìe\u [¡_u kpfhpf L$fhu. Ap ApNm b[ph¡gu rhfp¡^u q¾$ep_u hp[ \B. S>¡ L$pfZ¡ fp¡N \ep¡ lp¡e [¡_p\u rhfp¡^u q¾$ep L$fhu.

7)        lh¡ Å¡ g|Mp `]$p\p£ k¡h_\u kp¡Å QX$hp_y¬ bÞey¬ lp¡e [p¡ [¡_u kpfhpf dpV¡$ QuL$Zp `]$p\p£ hp`fhp. D`f_u S> hp[ DgV$phu_¡ Alu¬ L$fu R>¡. b¬_¡dp¬ fl¡gp¡ rkÙp¬[ A¡L$ S> R>¡.

8)        Å¡ hp[ S> ip¡\ lp¡e A_¡ A¡dp¬ fp¡Nu_p¡ dm dmpiedp¬ N¬W$pB Nep¡ lp¡e [p¡ r_ê$W$ bsõ[_p¡ D`ep¡N L$fhp¡. bsõ[ A¡V$g¡ A¡q_dp, rhrh^ ]$p¡j_piL$ Öìep¡_p¬ DL$pmp_u A¡r_dp Ap`hp_u q¾$ep Apeyh£]$dp¬ bsõ[_¡ _pd¡ Ap¡mMpe>¡. Ap `Z A¡L$ k¬ip¡^_ q¾$ep A¡V$g¡ `¬QL$d® S> \ey¬.

A¡V$g¡ fp¡Nu_¡ g¬O_-`pQ_ L$fphu [¡_¡ ]¡$l_¡ r_fpd L$fhp¡. `R>u ]$p¡jp_ykpf A_¡ õ\p_p_ykpf hd_, rhf¡Q_, bsõ[, _õe S>¡hp `¬QL$d®_p âep¡Np¡\u ifuf_u k¬iyqÙ L$fhp_u hp[ â\d d|L$u. ApV$gy¬ L$fhp\u dp¡V$p cpN_p fp¡Np¡ [p¡ _pi `pd¡ R>¡. bpL$u_p ]$p¡jp¡ A_¡ fp¡N `f¡Æ `pmhp\u A_¡ k¬id_ rQqL$Ðkp\u dV¡$ R>¡.

 D`f

A`Õe

            ipõÓL$pf¡ A`Õe_u hp[ gMu R>¡. A¡V$g¡ A`Õe rkhp_y¬ `Õe kdÆ g¡hp_y¬. kp¡\ fp¡Ndp¬ _yL$ip_ L$f_pf cphp¡_y¬ Alv hZ®_ L$f¡g R>¡. S>¡ _yL$ip_ L$f¡ [¡_¡ A`Õe kdS>hy¬ Å¡BA¡. [¡_p\u DgVy¬-rh`qf[ gpc L$f_pf lp¡e S>¡_¡ `Õe NZu iL$pe.

            A¡L$ buÆ hp[ [¡ S>dp_pdp¬ A¡V$g¡ L¡$ QfL$ k¬rl[p gMpB [¡ kdedp¬ S>¡ A`Õe âQgu[ l[p¬. S>¡dp¬_p L¡$V$gp¬L$ Ap`Z¡ Å¡ep _\u L¡$ D`ep¡Ndp¬ g¡[p `Z _\u. [¡\u [¡_p¡ Dëg¡M AÓ¡ L$ep£ _\u. dpÓ S>¡ Öìep¡ lpg âQgu[ R>¡ A_¡ ìehlpfdp¬ R>¡ [¡dp¬\u L$p¡_y¬ N°lZ _ L$fhy¬ [¡ S> Atl b[pìey¬ R>¡.

1.         duWy¬$ - S>¡_¡ Ap`Z¡ ghZ, _dL$, kp¡ëV$ L$luA¡ R>uA¡. [¡ Mp¡fpL$dp¬ duWy¬$ _rl g¡hp_y¬, A¡V$g¡ kp¡ëV$ äu X$pe¡V$ (A¡k.A¡a.X$u.) kp¬â[ rhop_ `Z kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu_¡ duWy$ g¡hp_u d_pB L$f¡ R>¡. Apeyh£]$ [¡_¡ hjp£ `l¡gp¬ L$üy¬ R>¡, [¡\u h^y rhhp]$ V$uà`Zu_u S>ê$f _\u.

2.         Np¡m - ipõÓL$pf gM¡ R>¡ Np¡m A_¡ [¡_u b_phV$p¡ kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu dpV¡$ A`Õe R>¡. [¡ hM[¡ Mp¬X$ âQrg[ _lp¡[u S>¡\u [¡_p¡ Dëg¡M Atl L$ep£ _\u. `f¬[y Mp¬X$ `Z kdÆ S> g¡hp_u, b¬_¡_¡ c¡Np L$l¡hp lp¡e [p¡ BnyrhL$pf, i¡fX$udp¬\u b_[p `]$p\p£_y¬ A¡V$g¡ i¡fX$u_p¡ fk, Np¡m, Mp¬X$ A_¡ [¡_u b_phV$p¡ b¬^, Vy$L$dp¬ kp]$u cpjpdp¬ Nm`Z D`f Qp¡L$X$u.

kpdpÞe fu[¡ A¡hy¬ b_[y¬ lp¡e R>¡ L¡$ Äepf¡ gp¡L$p¡_¡ duWy$ b¬^ L$fhp_y¬ Aph¡ Ðepf¡ [¡ Nþey¬ Qpgy L$fu ]¡$ R>¡. dp¡mu fkp¡B cph¡ _rl A¡V$g¡ Nm`Z Mpe `Z kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu dpV¡$ [p¡ [¡ b¬_¡ D`f âr[b¬^ R>¡.

3.         ]$lv - Apeyh£]$dp¬ ]$lv_p¡ kp¡Å ApZ_pf L$üp R>¡. ]$lv\u kp¡Å h^¡, Äepf¡ R>pi kp¡Å dV$pX¡$, A¡L$ `]$p\®_p b¡ õhê$` `Z k¬õL$pf\u [¡d_p¬ NyZp¡dp¬ a¡f `X$ep¡, ]$lv_¡ hgp¡_u_¡-d\u_¡-[¡_p¬ L$Zp¡_¡ rR>ß L$fu_¡ R>pi b_phu [¡\u [¡ ip¡\lf. ]$lv cpf¡, R>pi lgL$u ]$lu Arcóe¬]$u A¡V$g¡ QuL$Zy¬, ÷p¡[kp¡dp¬ Ahfp¡^ L$f¡, Äepf¡ R>pi [p¡ õÓp¡[kp¡_¡ kpa L$f¡ M|ëgp L$f¡, A¡V$g¡ kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu_¡ ]$lv Mphp_u d_pB R>¡, `Z R>pi Mphp_u d_pB _\u.

4.         MpV$p Öìep¡ - D`f\u hp[ ApNm QgphuA¡ ]$lu¬ MpVy¬$ lp¡e L¡$ dp¡my¬, kpp¡Å_p fp¡NuA¡ _rl g¡hp_y¬ R>pi gB iL$pe `Z [¡ kph dp¡mu, S>fp `Z MpV$u _lu, A¡V$g¡ R>pi_p¡ Dëg¡M L$f[u hM[¡ MpV$u R>pi _rl Mphu [¡d kdS>hy¬. MpV$p Öìep¡dp¬ ]$lv, MpV$u R>pi, V$d¡V$p, L$p¡Wp, Apdgu, guby¬, guby_p a}g, L$pQu L¡$fu, MpV$p amp¡ hN¡f¡ Aphu Åe, lp¬X$hp¡, Y$p¡L$mp¬, MdZ, BX$gu, Y$p¡¬kp, b°¡X$, hN¡f¡ ApÕep `R>u `L$h¡gp `]$p\p£ Aphu Åe.

Apd Mpfp¡, MpV$p¡ A_¡ Nþep¡ fk kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu dpV¡$ b¬^ [yfp¡, [uMp¡ A_¡ L$X$hp¡ fk g¡hpe, kdÆ gp¡ AX$^p fkp¡ D`f âr[b¬^. dp¡V$p cpN_u fkp¡B D`f A¬Ly$i.

5.         ]$pê$-d]$ufp - _p¡ X²$vL$, L$p¡B `Z Å[_p d^_p¡ kd|mhp¡ r_j¡O. R>p_¡ M|Z¡ _rl L¡$ Ål¡fdp¬ `Z _rl îu. dp¡fpfÆcpB ]¡$kpB_¡ Nd[u hp[.

6.         [g - Ap`Z¡ [g_p¡ blz Ap¡R>p¡ D`ep¡N L$fuA¡ R>uA¡. L$p¡BL$ Mpk fkp¡X$pdp¬ hp`fuA¡. D[fpeZ D`f ep]$ L$fuA¡. bpmL$p¡ [g_p gpXy$ Mpe. bpL$u lh¡ [¡_p¡ `pL$ Ap¡R>p¡, cph h^pf¡, [¡\u Qpg OV$ep¡. ANpD [¡_p¡ M|b D`ep¡N \[p¡. [g_y¬ L$Qfuey A_¡ [¡hu buÆ hp_Nu M|b Mhp[u. Atl [g D`f `Z âr[b¬O Ål¡f \ep¡. Ap`Z_¡ blz õ`i®[u hp[ _\u. R>[p¬ ÅÞeyApfu dpk dp¬k kp¡Å kp\¡ [p¡ S>fp kpQhu g¡hy¬.

7.         _hy¬ A_pS> - OJ, Qp¡Mp hN¡f¡ A_pS> A¡L$ hj® `R>u Mphp Å¡BA¡-[pÅ _rl. L$pfZ L¡$ [¡ cpf¡ lp¡e R>¡. kpÆ ìes¼[_¡ `Z [¡ Mphp_p¡ r_j¡^ kp¡Åhpmu ìes¼[_¡ [p¡ [¡ _yL$ip_ S> L$f¡. dpV¡$ A¡L$ hj® Sy>_¬y Mphy¬ _hy¬ A_pS> R>p¡X$phy¬.

8.         cpf¡ `]$p\p£ - cpf¡ A¡V$g¡ hS>_dp¬ [p¡ cpf¡ Mfp S>, `Z `Qhpdp¬ `Z cpf¡, S>¡_¡ Apeyh£]$dp¬ Nyê$ `]$p\p£ L$l¡ R>¡. Apd Nyê$ `]$p\p£ `¡V$ cfu_¡ Mphp_u d_pB R>¡. [¡ [p¡ \p¡X$p Mphp rl[phl R>¡. L$pfZL¡$ kdekf `Q¡ _rl [p¡ Apd L$f¡. A¡V$g¡ kp¡Åhpmu ìes¼[ dpV¡$ [p¡ [¡_p D`f `|fp¡ âr[b¬O Ahp Nep¡. Aphp `]$p\p£dp¬ ^u, [¡g, dpMZ, dphp¡, duW$pB, Mp¬X$, Np¡m hN¡f¡ hN¡f¡ Aphu Nep.

9.         kyL$h¡gy¬ ipL$ - R>¡ _¡ Apòe® _u hp[ ? L$p¡B k|L$h¡gy¬ ipL$ Mp[y li¡ ? A¡hp¡ âñ kp¥_¡ \pe. L$pfZ L¡$ bpf¡ drl_p dpNp¡ [¡ ipL$ dm¡ R>¡. cp]$fhp_p cvX$p A_¡ dpNkf_p d|mp bpf¡ dpk dpNu gp¡. A_¡ [¡ cp]$fhp [\p dpNkf L$f[p¬ kpfp A_¡ QqX$ep[p. `l¡gp¬ A¡hy¬ l[y¬ L¡$ ipL$ dpÓ Qp¡dpkpdp¬ S> Å¡hp dm[y¬. AdyL$ ipL$ ]$p.[. Xy$¬Nmu bV¡$V$p S>¡hy¬ bpf¡ dpk dm¡. buÅ L$p¡B ipL$ riepm¡ dm¡. `Z D_pmpdp¬ [p¡ gugy ipL$ Å¡hp S> _ dm¡. Ðepf¡ Ap k|LhZu_u â\p l[u. lÆ `Z ^Zp Ly$Vy¬$bp¡dp¬ [¡ Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡.

]$p.[. dfQp¬_u L$pQgu, gugp dfQp¬_p duWy¬$ cfu (âdpZkf) [¡_¡ k|L$hu ]¡$hp_p¬, `R>u S>ê$f `X¡$ Ðepf¡ [¡ [mu_¡ Mphp_p¬, Nhpf_u k|L$hZu \[u. d¡\u Äepf¡ kõ[u lp¡e Ðepf¡ _p_p `p__¡ Q|V$u k|L$hu _Mpe. L$p¡\duf dpV¡$ `Z A¡hy¬ S> R>¡. `l¡gp¬ [p¡ d|m_p k|L$hZu `Z \[u. Ap A¡L$ âuTh£i_ `Ùr[ l[u, _¡ Ap¡a kuT_dp¬ D`ep¡Nu \[u. lh¡ A¡ â\p Ap`p¡Ap` f]$ \B NB R>¡.

            Apeyh£]$pQpep£ Apd `Z ipL$ Mphp_u _p `pX¡$ R>¡. Ðepf¡ k|L$hZu [p¡ iu fu[¡ Mhpe ? [¡dp¬ hmu kp¡Åhpmu ìes¼[ dpV¡$ [p¡ _ S> Mhpe.

10.       kyLy$ dp¬k - k|L$p ipL$ S>¡hu hp[ lh¡ k|L$p dp¬k_¡ `Z gpNy `X¡$ R>¡ S>. ApNm [p¡ buÅ dp¬k Mphp_u `Z d_pB R>¡. [¡_u hp[ lh¡ Aphi¡.

11.       dp¬k - QfL¡$ ÓZ Å[_p¬ kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu_¡ Mphp_u _p L$lu R>¡. N°pçe A¡V$g¡ S>_phfy¬ dp¬k, S>gue A¡V$g¡ S>mQf âpZu_y¬ dp¬k Ap\u dp¬kplpfuAp¡ kdÆ g¡. k|L$dp¬k [p¡ Mphp_y¬ _\u S>. D`fp¬[ dpR>gu, L$pQbp, L$fQgp¬, TvNp S>¡hp QmQf, âpZuAp¡, lfZ, fvR>, S>¬Ngu c|¬X$, S>¬Ngu N^¡X$p, fp¡T, _ugNpe hN¡f¡_y¬ dp¬k `Z _rl S> Mphp_y¬.

            bL$fu_y¬ dp¬k Mhpe A_¡ A¡V$gp\u S> k¬[p¡j dp_hpdp¬ Aph¡ [¡ `yf[y¬ R>¡.

12.       AkpÐçe - A¡V$g¡ dpaL$ _ Aph¡ [¡ _ S> Mphy¬. ]$p.[. dN kpfp R>¡, DÑd Mp¡fpL$ R>¡. `Z L$p¡B_¡ [¡ dpaL$ _ Aph¡ [p¡ _ S> Mphp, ifuf S>¡ õhuL$pfhp_u  _p `pX¡$ [¡ `fpZ¡ Mphp_u gpc_¡ b]$g¡ _yL$ip_ S> \pe. dpV¡$ Nd¡ [¡V$gy¬ D`ep¡Nu-gpcâ]$ lp¡e R>[p¬ S>¡ dpaL$ _ Aph¡ [¡ _ S> Mphy¬.

13.       rh]$plu Aß - S>¡ Mp¡fpL$ bm[fp L$f¡ [¡ rh]$plu, [¡dp¬ A¡L$ ]$pê$ _rl `uhp_y¬ [p¡ ApNm Aphu S> Ney¬. MpV$u QuÅ¡_u hp[ `Z L$fu gu^u. bpL$u flu [uMu, A\pϬ, fpe[y¬, QV$Zu hN¡f¡ _ S> Mhpe.

14.       buÅ `]$p\p£ - Qp¡Mp_p¡ gp¡V$ Mphp_u _p R>¡. Ap`Z¡ [¡_p hp_Nu L$p¡BL$ S> hpf b_phuA¡ R>uA¡. buSy>¬ S>h_¡ aZNpe¡gp Mphp_u _p L$lu R>¡. Ap`Z¡ S>h Mp[p _\u. A¡V$g¡ hp[ `yfu \B NB.

15.       b¡ rhlpf - kp¡Å_p fp¡Nu_¡ q]$hk¡ kyhp_u d_pB R>¡ L$pfZ L¡$ [¡ L$ah^®L$ R>¡. A_¡ d¥\y__u d_pB R>¡.

            b¬_¡_p L$pfZp¡ kdÆ iL$pe R>¡ A_¡ b¬_¡ q¾$ep ip¡\h^®L$ R>¡.

            ApV$gy¬ A`Õe bpL$u_y¬ `Õe.

 D`f

kp¡Å_u rQqL$Ðkp

            kp¡Å_u kpfhpf b¡ fu[¡ \pe R>¡. (1) Apæe¬[f-Ap¥j^ `ep¡N\u ]$p¡jid_ L$fu kp¡Å dV$pX$pe R>¡. (2) bpü-kp¡Å D`f g¡`, k¡L$ hN¡f¡ L$fu kp¡Å dV$pX$hp_u rQqL$Ðkp. iê$Ap[dp¬ Ap`Z¡ Apæe¬[f D`Qpfp¡ Å¡BA¡.

 

(1) Apæe¬[f rQqL$Ðkp

kp¡Å_u kpfhpf dpV¡$ d|Óg A_¡ ip¡^Ý_ Ap¥j^p¡ rhi¡j D`ep¡Nu \pe R>¡. Aphp Ap¥j^p¡ rhj¡ `l¡gp¬ rhQpfuA¡.

            `y__®hp _¡ kpV$p¡X$u `Z L$l¡ R>¡. Qp¡dpkp_p hjp®\u [¡_p h¡gp S>du_ D`f `\fpe¡gp Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Ap h¡gp `p_ krl[ ^p¡B, [¡_p¡ [pÅ¡ fk L$pY$u 20 \u 30 N°pd_u dpÓpdp¬ fp¡Nu_¡ Ap`u iL$pe. Ap `y__®hp buÆ kuT_dp¬ k|L$u dm¡ R>¡. [¡_p¡ DL$pmp¡ L$fu_¡ `u iL$pe [¥epf Ap¥j^dp¬ `y__®hpkh, `y__®hpô$L$, `y__®hpqfô$, `y__®hp d¬X|$f, `y__®hpq]$ N|Nm, hN¡f¡ ]$hp bÅfdp¬ dm¡ R>¡. [¡_y¬ k¡h_ `Z rl[L$f R>¡.

            Np¡Mê$ buÅ d|Óg Ap¥j^ R>¡. [¡_p h¡gp `Z S>du_ D`f `\fpe R>¡. `f¬[y [¡_p L$p¬V$phpmp am L$pddp¬ Aph¡ R>¡. k|L$p Np¡Mê$ Np¬^u_u ]y$L$p_¡ dm¡ R>¡, [¡_¡ Mp¬X$u [¡_y¬ Q|Z 3 \u 4 N°pd_u dpÓdp¬ ÓZ hpf gB iL$pe. Np¡Mê$ _¡ A^L$Qfp Mp¬X$u [¡_¡ DL$pmp¡ b_phu `u iL$pe. Np¡nyfpq]$ N|Nm_u 2-2 Np¡mu khpf-b`p¡f-kp¬S>¡ q]$hkdp¬ 3 hpf `pZu kp\¡ gB iL$pe.

            rigpÆ[ A¡ `Õ\fdp¬\u _uL$m[p¡ fk R>¡. [¡ d|Óg, ip¡^Ý_ A_¡ `p¥rô$L$ R>¡. 5 \u 20 N°pd ky^u [¡ ]|$^ L¡$ `pZudp¬ Ap¡Npmu_¡ q]$hkdp¬ khpf-kp¬S> 2 hpf gB iL$pe. [¡_u b_phV$p¡dp¬ Q¬ÖâcphV$u _¬. 1, rigprS>Ðhpq]$ hV$u, Æhu[â]$p hV$u, Apfp¡Áehr^® hV$u hN¡f¡ dm¡ R>¡. [¡_u 2-2 Np¡mu khpf-b`p¡f-kp¬S>¡ q]$hkdp¬ 3 hpf `pZu kp\¡ gB iL$pe.

            d|Ó î¡óW$ rhf¡QL$ A_¡ ip¡^Ý_ R>¡. Npe_y¬ [pSy>¬ d|Ó 30 \u 50 N°pd ky^u q]$hkdp¬ 2 \u 3 hpf `uhp\u `Z kp¡Å D[f¡ R>¡.

            S>h `Z kp¡Å D[pf_pf A_¡ `¡ipb kpa gph_pf R>¡. S>h_¡ afu `pZudp¬ DL$pmu [¡ S> `pZu ApMp¡ q]$hk `uhp_p D`ep¡Nudp¬ g¡hy¬ Å¡BA¡.

            Ap D`fp¬[ npf``®V$u, ip¡\lf hV$u, d|Óg L$hp\, r_Ðep_¬]$ fk, S>gp¡]$fpqf fk, Ly$dpfu Apkh hN¡f¡ D`ep¡Nu R>¡.

            kp¡Ådp¬ [p¡X$ A_¡ ]y$:Mphp¡ [\p¡ lp¡e [p¡ Ar”[y¬X$u hV$u_u 2-2 Np¡mu khpf-b`p¡f-kp¬S>¡ q]$hkdp¬ 3 hpf `pZu kp\¡ gB iL$pe.

 

fp¡Np_ykpf rQqL$Ðkp

            kp¡Å A¡ Apd ]¡$Mp[u fu[¡ kpdpÞe fp¡N gpN¡ R>¡, `f¬[y ^Zu hM[ dp¡V$p fp¡N_p gnZ [fuL¡$ lp¡e R>¡. [¡_p [fa Å¡ ]y$g®c k¡hhpdp¬ Aph¡ [p¡ ^p[L$ `qfZpd Aph¡ R>¡ ]$p.[. L$uX$_u bfpbf L$pd _ L$f¡ [p¡ `N¡ kp¡Å Aph¡. `N_p kp¡Å Å¡B_¡ S> r_óZp¬[ rQqL$ÐkL$ L$uX$_u_y¬ r_]$p_ L$f¡ R>¡. Aphp fp¡N_u  [f[ kpfhpf _ L$fpe [p¡ d©Ðey_y¬ L$pfZ hNf kp¡Å Aph¡ [p¡ [f[ S> [¡ kpÅ ip L$pfZ\u Apìep R>¡ [¡_p [`pk L$fphhu Å¡BA¡. [¡hu S> fu[¡ ù]$efp¡Ndp¬ `Z kp¡Å QX¡$ W¡$. A¡d L$l¡hpe R>¡ L¡$ `yê$jdp¬ `N¡\u kp¡Å QY$u dp¡Y¡$\u kp¡Å QY$u `N [fa h^[p¬ Åe [p¡ [¡ `Z ce¬L$f[p k|QL$ R>¡.

            lh¡ Arl Ap`Z¡ ¼ep fp¡N\u kp¡Å Apìep lp¡e [¡_u L¡$hu kpfhpf L$fhu [¡ Å¡Biy¬.

1.         Ly$rd : Å¡ `V$dp¬ L$frdep lp¡e [p¡ `Z dp¢ `f \p¡\f Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Aphp fp¡N_p dm_y¬ `funZ L$fhp\u dmdp¬ Ly$rd_u lpS>fu Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. [¡ D`fp¬[ gp¡lu_u Ap¡R>`. E^dp¬ fpÓ¡ ]$p¬[ L$QL$Qphhp, gpm `X$hu L¡$ TbL$u_¡ ÅNu S>hy¬ hN¡f¡ gnZp¡ Ly$rd_p¬ R>¡. [¡dp¬ hphX$vN_y¬ Q|Z®, Ly$rdLy$W$pf fk, rhX¬$Npqfô$ hN¡f¡ Ap¥j^p¡ ep¡Æ iL$pe.

2.         dpV$u Mphp_u V¡$h :           bpmL$p¡_¡ [\p `k|[p_¡ dpV$u Mphp_u V¡$h lp¡e R>¡. [¡_¡ gB_¡ õÓp¡[p¡fp¡^ \pe R>¡. A_¡ kp¡Å QX¡$ R>¡ Aphu ìes¼[A¡ dpV$u Mphp_y¬ R>p¡X$u ]¡$hy¬ Å¡B¡A¡. A_¡ dy]y$ rhf¡Q_ (Sy>gpb) gB dpV$u_¡ blpf L$pY$hu Å¡BA¡.

3.         `pXy¬$ : Å¡ ifufdp¬ gp¡lu Ap¡Ry>¬ lp¡e [¡ `Z kp¡Å Aph¡. Ap_¡ `pXy¬$ L¡$ A¡r_rdL$ L¬$X$ui_ L$l¡hpe, fp¡Nu_¡ `y__®hp d¬Wy$f, L$pkuk cõd, gp¡lpkh hN¡¡f¡ Ap`hp Å¡BA¡.

4.         kNcp®hõ\p : dp¬ bl¡_p¡_¡ kp¡Å QX¡$ R>¡. Ap gnZ `Z kpfy¬ _\u. Aphu bl¡_p¡_¡ Apfpd L$fhp¡ MpV$p `]$p\p£ b¬^ L$fhp A_¡ gp¡lpkh_y¬ k¡h_ L$fphhy¬.

5.         k|hpfp¡N : âk|[phõ\pdp¬ k|hpfp¡N_¡ L$pfZ¡ `Z kp¡Å QX$[p¬ lp¡e R>¡. Aphu bl¡_p¡_¡ â[p`g¬L¡$ðf fk A_¡ ]$id|gpqfô$_y¬ k¡h_ S>ê$fu R>¡.

6.         Apdhp[_p¡ fp¡N : ê$rdqV$L$ Ap\®fpBqV$k A¡V$g¡ Apdhp[_p kp¡Ådp¬ dp¡V$u k¬r^Ap¡ D`f [¡_u Akf Å¡hp dm¡ R>¡. Apdhp[_u kpfhpfdp¬ tkl_p]$ N|Nm, Apdhp[qf fk, fpS> _fZ¡ q]$h¡g A_¡ kp¡Å D`f f¡[u_p¡ k¡L$ L$fhp¡ Å¡BA¡.

7.         d|Ó`vX$ : L$vX$_u bNX¡$ [p¡ kp¡Å Aph¡. [¡dp `y__®hpk_, `y__®hpqfô$, Np¡nyfpq]$ N|Nm, rigpÆ[ S>h_y¬ `pZu S>¡hp d|Óg Ap¥j^p¡ Ap`hp.

8.         ù]$efp¡N dp¬ kp¡Å Aph¡ [p¡ ù]$efp¡N_p¡ âL$pf ÅZu [¡ âdpZ¡ kpfhpf L$fhu. Å¡ L¡$ Apeyh£]$dp¬ ASy>®_pqfô$, ]$id|gpqfô$, Æhu[â]$p hV$u, `y__®hpq]$ N|Nm hN¡f¡ Ap`u iL$pe.

9.         guhf-bfp¡m : guhf L¡$ bfp¡X$ bNX¡$ [p¡ [¡_¡ L$pfZ¡ `Z kp¡Å Aph¡, Aphp âk¬N¡ Apfp¡Áeer^®_u hV$u, `y__®hp d¬X|$f, Ly$dpfu Apkh hN¡f¡ î¡óW$ R>¡.

10.       L$p¡B ÆhS>¬[y -L$fX¡$ [p¡ : dp¡V$p cpN_p Æh-S>¬[y L$fX¡$ [p¡ r`ÑS>Þe kp¡Å Aph¡ R>¡. ]$p.[. c_fu L$fX¡$ [p¡ r`ÑS> kp¡\p \pe. A¡hp kde¡ ]$ip¬N g¡`, L$pmu dpmu, ip¡^Ý_ g¡`, g¡` NyV$u hN¡f¡ h`pfu iL$pe.

 

(1) b°pü rQqL$Ðkp : kp¡Å_p¡ [p¡X$ ]y$Mphp¡ Ap¡R>p¡ L$fhp L$`X$p_p L¡$ g¡`_p¡ k¡L$ L$fu iL$pe.

kp¡Å D`f ]$ip¬N g¡`, ]$p¡jÝ_ g¡`, hp[Ý_ g¡` hN¡f¡ `pZudp¬ L$pghu_¡ gNphu iL$pe. S>ê$f `X¡$ [p¡ [¡_¡ kl¡S> Nfd L$fu_¡ `Z gNphu iL$pe.

  •             ^Ñyfp¡ ip¡\lf R>¡. [¡_p `p__¡ QfZu_u S>¡d `pZudp¬ hpeu kl¡S> Nfd L$fu kp¡Å D`f g¡` L$fhp¡.

  •             cdfu L¡$ T¡fu S>¬[y L$fX¡$ A_¡ kp¡Å¡ Aph¡, bm[fp \pe [p¡ L$pmu dpV$u_p¡ g¡` L$fu iL$pe.

  •             ^Zu hpf L¡$fp¡ku_ gNphhp\u `Z Aphp kp¡Å D[fu Åe R>¡.

  •             [ygku_p `p__p¡ fk, d|mp_p `p__p¡ fk, _hkpf_y¬ `pZudp¬\u Nd¡ [¡ kp¡Å¡ D`f gNphhp\u kp¡Å D[f¡ R>¡.

  •             gudX$p_p `p__¡ bpau kp¡Å D`f gNphhp\u kp¡Å D[f¡ R>¡.

  •             fkh¬[u_¡ `pZudp¬ gY$u_¡ kp¡Å D`f gNphhp\u kp¡Å¡ dV¡$ R>¡.

D`f

 
 
 
 
Copyright © 2008, Naval Ayurvedic & Herbal Clinic | All rights reserved Home | Contact | Our Products | Free Services | Sitemap